Woodpeckers have the longest tongues of any bird compared to their size. They use their tongues to rake out holes in trees they have drilled, dragging out any insects they find.
There are 15 species of woodpecker in New Mexico that have been spotted. Of these, 12 species are recognized on state checklists as regularly occurring, and 3 additional species are considered rare or accidental.
Going out birding in the woods and forest is the best way of seeing woodpeckers in New Mexico. However, some such as Red-bellied Woodpeckers, Hairy Woodpeckers Downy Woodpeckers, and Northern Flickers can regularly be seen on backyard feeders.
This guide will help you identify the woodpecker species in New Mexico according to avibase.
Woodpeckers make distinctive drumming sounds, especially in the spring when they are looking for a mate. Both male and female woodpeckers make drumming sounds.
In New Mexico, Hairy Woodpeckers are more commonly spotted in summer, while the Northern Flicker and several other species are more commonly spotted in winter. The national forest around Santa Fe and the Gila National Forest are the best chance to see woodpeckers in New Mexico.
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The 15 Types of Woodpecker in New Mexico
1. Northern Flicker
Northern Flickers are common throughout New Mexico all year, but their number swells in winter with birds migrating from Canada. The peak time to spot Northern Flickers here is the fall migration in October.
Northern Flickers are the most frequently spotted woodpecker in New Mexico in summer and winter. According to checklists submitted by bird watchers for New Mexico, they are spotted in 15% in summer but double that in winter at 30%.
Northern Flickers are large brown woodpeckers with colorful black-spotted plumage with a white patch on its rump in flight plus a red nape of the neck in the males.
Northern Flickers have red or yellow flashes in the wings and tail depending on where they originate. Red-shafted birds live in the west, and yellow-shafted birds live in the east.
- Length: 11.0-12.2 in (28-31 cm)
- Weight: 3.9-5.6 oz (110-160 g)
- Wingspan: 16.5-20.1 in (42-51 cm)
They can be spotted across all of the US and Canada, but those that breed in Canada migrate south for the winter.
Northern Flickers make a loud ringing call with a piercing yelp. They nest in tree cavities, and they lay 5-8 white eggs. They mainly eat ants and beetles and fruits and seeds and can often be seen on the ground digging them up with their curved bill.
Northern Flickers call and drumming:
Northern Flickers are quite large woodpeckers, and so their drumming is loud compared to smaller woodpeckers. They also make a long call that sounds like ‘flick – flick-flick’.
Where to spot Northern Flickers:
Northern Flickers can be seen in open woods, forest edges, parks, and suburbs. They are often on the ground foraging for food.
How to attract more Northern Flickers to your backyard feeders:
Northern Flickers do not come as often to bird feeders, but they can be seen at a birdbath, so adding an attractive pedestal birdbath or a heated birdbath for the winter is your best bet. You can try to encourage them by having black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, suet, cracked corn, peanuts, and millet on suet cages, large hoppers, or platform feeders.
You can also put up a nest box suitable for flickers to attract a breeding pair and plant berry-producing plants like grape, bayberries, hackberries, or elderberries.
2. Ladder-backed Woodpecker
Ladder-backed Woodpeckers are the second most common woodpecker found in New Mexico. They are spotted here all year, but they are more common from September to May.
In summer Ladder-backed Woodpeckers are spotted in 15.5% of checklists submitted for the state and 12% in winter.
Ladder-backed Woodpeckers are small with a black and white ladder pattern on their backs and a checkered pattern on their wings. They are whiteish-gray underneath with faint black markings. Males have a red crown, and females have a black crown.
- Length: 6.3-7.1 in (16-18 cm)
- Weight: 0.7-1.7 oz (21-48 g)
- Wingspan: 13.0 in (33 cm)
Deserts and thorn forests, across dry southern states from California to Texas, up to southeastern Colorado, and down through Mexico, are the usual habitats of Ladder-backed Woodpeckers. Ladder-backed Woodpeckers do not migrate.
Mainly feeding on insect larvae and some adult insects such as ants and caterpillars and occasionally Ladder-backed Woodpeckers will also eat cactus fruit.
Where to spot Ladder-backed Woodpeckers:
Early morning in February and March is the best time to spot Ladder-backed Woodpeckers as they are out defending their territories in preparation for breeding. Look for them in dry areas with Joshua trees, Juniper, willow, or honey mesquite.
How to attract more Ladder-backed Woodpeckers to your yard:
Ladder-backed Woodpeckers love mealworms, and they will also visit black oil sunflower seed feeders and eat peanut butter.
3. Hairy Woodpecker
Hairy Woodpeckers are quite common and can be found all year in New Mexico. They are most commonly spotted in the north around Santa Fe and in the west in Gila National Forest.
In state checklists, they are recorded between 6% – 8% in summer and winter.
Hairy Woodpeckers are medium-sized woodpeckers with a black and white pattern and a large white patch on their backs. The males have a flash of red towards the back of their heads.
- Length: 7.1-10.2 in (18-26 cm)
- Weight: 1.4-3.4 oz (40-95 g)
- Wingspan: 13.0-16.1 in (33-41 cm)
Hairy Woodpeckers are visually similar to the Downy woodpecker but larger, and they have a longer bill. As it is often found in the same areas, it is hard to tell them apart.
They can be found across all US states and most of Canada and into Mexico. They can be seen on backyard feeders and are powerful small birds that make a whinnying sound or explosive peak calls.
Hairy Woodpeckers’ diet is mostly insects such as beetle larvae, ants, and bark beetles, but they will also eat bees, caterpillars, spiders, moth pupae, and millipedes.
This Woodpecker nests in the cavities of dead trees or dead parts of trees and lay between 3-6 white eggs.
Hairy Woodpecker sounds
The hairy Woodpeckers drum sounds similar to the Downy Woodpecker, but it is faster, and you cannot hear the individual drums as clearly.
Where to spot Hairy Woodpeckers:
You can find Hairy Woodpeckers in woodlands on trunks or main branches of large trees, but they are also found in a wide variety of habitats, including woodlots, parks, and cemeteries.
How to attract more Hairy Woodpeckers to your backyard
Hairy Woodpeckers benefit from squirrel-proof suet feeders with a cage to stop larger birds from taking all the turns. Also, black oil sunflower seeds attract more Hairy Woodpeckers to your yard, and if you combine them with suet in a great combination suet and hopper feeder, then you get two feeders in one.
4. Downy Woodpecker
Downy Woodpeckers live in New Mexico all year, mainly in the northern part of the state around Santa Fe. They are spotted a little more in winter and are recorded in 7.4% of checklists, but only 4.8% in summer.
The Downy Woodpecker has black and white patterning, mostly black with a white patch on their backs. The males also have a red patch on the back of their heads.
- Length: 5.5-6.7 in (14-17 cm)
- Weight: 0.7-1.0 oz (21-28 g)
- Wingspan: 9.8-11.8 in (25-30 cm)
Although visually very similar to the Hairy Woodpecker, it is a third smaller and with a smaller beak compared to other woodpeckers. It is usually a Downy Woodpecker that you see at feeders as they are more common.
Downy Woodpeckers are very common throughout the US and Canada. They are not found along the southern border with Mexico or the North of Canada.
Downy Woodpeckers can be found on backyard bird feeders. They make a high-pitched pik sound and the descending whinny call and are very active, so fun to watch. Downy Woodpeckers nest in dead tree cavities and lay between 3-8 small (0.8 in) white eggs.
Downy woodpeckers eat mainly insects, especially larvae, nuts and they also eat berries, acorns, and grains. They will sometimes be seen drinking from hummingbird feeders.
Downy Woodpecker sound
Downy Woodpeckers are the most common woodpecker. They make a slightly slower drumming sound, so you can hear more of the individual drums than the Hairy Woodpecker, to which they look and sound similar.
Credit: www.xeno-canto.org Aiden Place
Where to spot Downy Woodpeckers:
Downy Woodpeckers are often seen mixed in with other small birds such as nuthatches and chickadees. They can be found in open woodlands and parks, orchards, and backyards and are commonly seen at feeders. They can also be seen amongst tall weeds.
How to attract more Downy Woodpeckers to your backyard:
An upside-down suet feeder is excellent for smaller woodpeckers such as Downy Woodpeckers as they offer protection from the rain and help stop bully birds. A bulk pack of suet cakes is a more economical way of buying them.
Also, black oil sunflower seeds attract more Downy Woodpeckers to your yard, and if you combine them with suet in great combination suet and hopper feeder, you get two feeders in one.
5. Acorn Woodpecker
Acorn Woodpeckers can be found in New Mexico all year, mainly in the southwest around Gila National Forest. They are spotted in around 3% – 4% of checklists for the state.
Acorn Woodpeckers have distinctive clown-like faces with red caps, white faces, a black patch around the beak, and black over the back of their heads and back. Their bellies are white with black markings. Female Acorn Woodpeckers have less red on the crowns than males.
- Length: 7.5-9.1 in (19-23 cm)
- Weight: 2.3-3.2 oz (65-90 g)
- Wingspan: 13.8-16.9 in (35-43 cm)
Acorn Woodpeckers are quite different than most woodpeckers in that they live in large groups and hoard acorns. They live in oak forests in western Oregon, California, and across to Texas, and down through Mexico to Central America.
They may look like clowns but it’s no laughing matter when it comes to eating, as the gruesome Acorn Woodpecker stores dead bugs in a ‘pantry’ and even eat the eggs of their own species!
Masses of holes drilled in winter in dead trees provide the perfect pantry, known as a granary tree, for acorns and other nuts collected by the Acorn Woodpecker. They will even check stored acorns and move them to smaller holes once they dry out and shrink.
Insects are not left out when it comes to storage, but this gruesome pantry of dead bugs is often left in cracks or crevices. Fruit and sap provide other food sources, as do eggs, including eggs of their own species.
Where to Spot Acorn Woodpeckers:
Oak forests are the best place to spot them, as looking out for their guarded pantry stash and listening for their parrot-like squawks is an easy way to find these sociable birds.
How to Attract Acorn Woodpeckers to Your Backyard:
You may find Acorn Woodpeckers an unwelcome visitor as they are known to drill holes in wood siding and utility poles as this is considered deadwood! You may still get them visiting if you live near oak forests.
6. Williamson’s Sapsucker
Williamson’s Sapsuckers are not that common in New Mexico, but they are spotted around Santa Fe and the Gila National Forest.
Williamson’s Sapsuckers males are more black than many woodpeckers with a glossy black back, vertical wing patches, red throat, and yellow belly.
Females have the more common black and white pattern on their back, and they have a brown head and black breast patch.
- Length: 8.3-9.8 in (21-25 cm)
- Weight: 1.6-1.9 oz (44-55 g)
Williamson’s Sapsuckers are migratory and spend the summer breeding in the mountainous west and the winter in southern states and Mexico.
Mainly feeding on sap from conifer trees, especially in spring, and then more insects such as ants, beetles, and flies in summer. Winter food is often fruit and seeds.
7. Lewis’s Woodpecker
Credit: Mike Bird
Although not that common, Lewis’s Woodpeckers are seen in New Mexico. They can be spotted mostly in the northern part of the state around Santa Fe.
Lewis’s Woodpeckers look like a completely different bird species, catching insects on the wing rather than hammering on trees. Then there is the pink belly, gray collar, and dark back with a dark red face to set it apart from its family.
- Length: 10.2-11.0 in (26-28 cm)
- Weight: 3.1-4.9 oz (88-138 g)
- Wingspan: 19.3-20.5 in (49-52 cm)
Lewis Woodpeckers can be found from as far north as British Columbia and down to California and Texas. They tend to breed further north in British Columbia, east to Wyoming, and south to Nevada before migrating south to southwestern states. Those on the Pacific Coast tend to remain all year, as do those in the southeast of their range.
As well as eating flying insects, Acorn Woodpeckers also eat nuts and fruit, and they will store them in crevices of cottonwood trees in winter.
Lewis’s Woodpeckers do not make their own nests, preferring instead to us those created by other woodpeckers, and they lay 5 – 9 eggs.
8. American Three-toed Woodpecker
American Three-toed Woodpeckers are rare woodpeckers in New Mexico and can be spotted mainly between June and September in the national forests in the state.
American Three-toed Woodpeckers have a yellow patch on the forehead, with black backs with white barring and white spots on the wings. They are white underneath with black barring on their sides.
They look similar to Black-backed Woodpeckers, but they are smaller. Females lack the yellow patch and have black foreheads.
- Length: 8.3-9.1 in (21-23 cm)
- Weight: 1.6-2.4 oz (44.8-67.9 g)
- Wingspan: 14.6-15.3 in (37-39 cm)
Although small, they are very powerful as they have three toes instead of the usual four, which allows them to lean back further.
Mostly found in Canada and Alaska, but American Three-toed Woodpeckers are also found further south down the western mountains down to Oregon and Nevada and as far as Arizona and New Mexico. Further east, they can be found in Michigan and Minnesota. They may move to lower elevations and from the far north in winter.
They prefer forests damaged by fire, flood, or storms that have lots of insects. They do not migrate and nest in May and June, laying up to 4 eggs.
9. Gila Woodpecker
Gila Woodpeckers are rare in New Mexico, and they can only be spotted in the southwestern corner of the state in Gila National Forest.
Gila Woodpeckers are barred black-and-white woodpeckers of the arid desert. They have tan heads, and the males have a red crown patch.
- Length: 8.7-9.4 in (22-24 cm)
- Weight: 1.8-2.8 oz (51-79 g)
- Wingspan: 15.8-16.5 in (40-42 cm)
They are resident in the arid deserts of the southwestern US, Northwest Mexico, and southern Baja California. They can often be seen and heard on a cool morning in their desert environment, often on top of a saguaro cactus.
Gila Woodpeckers feed on insects, small invertebrates, and berries. Usually foraging in cacti and dead vegetation and sometimes foraging on the ground for earthworms. They build their nests in excavated cavities in a saguaro cactus.
To attract Gila Woodpeckers try suet feeders and tube or platform feeders with corn, fruit, and nuts.
10. Red-headed Woodpecker
Red-headed Woodpeckers are rare in New Mexico, but they were seen here, mainly in the northeastern part of the state.
With their bright red-heads and black and white bold markings, these woodpeckers are one of the easiest to identify. Red-headed Woodpeckers are medium-sized with powerful spike bills. They have white undersides, black backs and large white bands on the wings, and short tails.
- Length: 7.5-9.1 in (19-23 cm)
- Weight: 2.0-3.2 oz (56-91 g)
- Wingspan: 16.5 in (42 cm)
Red-headed Woodpeckers can be found in Eastern and Central US states and into southern Canada. Those in the north and east of the range may migrate further east and south depending on acorn crops.
They can fiercely defend their territories, even removing or destroying the eggs of other birds or ducks. Red-headed Woodpeckers will catch insects in flight as well as in crevices like other woodpeckers.
Insects such as beetles, midges, honeybees, and grasshoppers, make up only about one-third of their diet. The other two-thirds are plant materials such as seeds, nuts, and berries. Red-headed Woodpeckers will also take nestlings or eggs from other birds and sometimes mice.
Red-headed Woodpeckers make a shrill call and nest in tree cavities, sometimes reusing a site, and lay 4-5 white eggs. Unfortunately, huge declines of 70% of Red-headed Woodpeckers have occurred between 1966 to 2014 due to habitat loss.
Where to spot Red-headed Woodpeckers:
They can be found in open woodlots, farms, dead timber in swamps, or pine savannas. Sometimes they visit backyard bird feeders.
How to attract Red-headed Woodpeckers to your backyard feeder:
Red-headed Woodpeckers visit backyards for suet.
11. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers are very rare in New Mexico, but there are sightings during winter, around Albuquerque and Las Cruces.
Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers are relatively small and are about the size of a robin. They are mostly black with red foreheads, and the male has a red throat.
- Length: 7.1-8.7 in (18-22 cm)
- Weight: 1.5-1.9 oz (43-55 g)
- Wingspan: 13.4-15.8 in (34-40 cm)
They migrate from Canada and Northeastern US states after breeding in the summer and spend the winter in the Southern US and Mexico.
Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers make holes in trees and use their brush-tipped tongues to get the sap out. They make neat rows of holes in horizontal rows, so look out for these in young paper birch, yellow birch, red or sugar maple, and hickory trees.
The holes need to be maintained to ensure a flow of sap. They make a loud mewing call, and they nest in tree cavities and usually have 5-6 white eggs.
Where to spot Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers:
Young deciduous forests often on birch or maple trees where they make neat rows of sapwells to feed.
How to attract more Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers to your backyard:
Although not usually found at bird feeders, Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers sometimes will come for suet.
12. Arizona Woodpecker
Arizona Woodpeckers are very rare in New Mexico, and they can only be spotted in the southwestern corner of the state.
Arizona Woodpeckers are distinctive woodpeckers being brown, which is unusual for woodpeckers. Their backs are solid brown, and their bellies are white with stripes on males and spots on females. Males also have a red patch o the top of their heads.
- Length: 7.1-7.9 in (18-20 cm)
- Weight: 1.2-1.8 oz (34-51 g)
- Wingspan: 14.2 in (36 cm)
Arizona Woodpeckers, although named Arizona Woodpeckers, they are predominantly found in Mexico as well as the southern corner of Arizona and New Mexico.
They can be found in the mountains with pine and oak trees feeding on insects and acorns. They can often be found in flocks with other small birds such as chickadees and nuthatches outside of the breeding season, between March and May.
13. Red-bellied Woodpecker
Red-bellied Woodpeckers are considered rare in New Mexico, and according to records, there have only been a couple of sightings in the state over the past 10 years.
Red-bellied Woodpeckers can be mistaken for Red-headed Woodpeckers as they have red caps, but they are much smaller than the Red-headed Woodpecker. Female Red-bellied Woodpeckers lack the red cap and only have red napes.
- Length: 9.4 in (24 cm)
- Weight: 2.0-3.2 oz (56-91 g)
- Wingspan: 13.0-16.5 in (33-42 cm)
They have a very pale red belly that can be hard to spot but have the typical black and white markings over their backs.
Red-bellied Woodpeckers can be found in the Eastern US, and they do not migrate.
Red-bellied Woodpeckers can often be seen at bird feeders, especially if you live near wooded areas. They make a distinctive loud rolling call which means you will often hear them before you see them.
Red-bellied Woodpeckers eat insects, spiders, seeds from grasses, fruit, and nuts. They will also sometimes eat nestlings. They nest in dead trees and may use the same nest year after year. They lay 4-5 white eggs on a bed of wood chips.
The tongue of the Red-bellied Woodpecker sticks out 2 inches past the beak and is barbed at the tip, along with sticky spit. This helps catch prey from deep crevices.
Red-bellied Woodpecker call and drumming
They make a shrill call and drum against trees at about 19 beats per second.
Where to spot Red-bellied Woodpeckers:
Red-bellied Woodpeckers are common in woodlands and forests in the eastern US but can be seen on bird feeders.
How to attract more Red-bellied Woodpeckers to your backyard feeders:
Red-bellied Woodpeckers will come to backyards for suet and black oil sunflower seeds. They can also be seen on hummingbird feeders and will feed on fruit. Also, plant native berry trees such as hawthorn or mountain-ash.
14. Red-breasted Sapsucker
Red-breasted Sapsuckers are rare species of woodpeckers in New Mexico, but there are a couple of sightings near the Gila National Forest.
Red-breasted Sapsuckers are medium-sized woodpeckers with dark red heads and breasts. They have a white line down the wing when folded and a white spot in front of their eye. Males and females look the same, but juveniles are darker and without the bright red head. Red-breasted Sapsuckers are redder on the head in northern areas than those in California.
- Length: 7.9-8.7 in (20-22 cm)
- Weight: 1.9-2.2 oz (53.1-63.5 g)
- Wingspan: 14.6-16.0 in (37-40.6 cm)
Red-breasted Sapsuckers can be found in Canada along the Pacific Coast in British Columbia and in the southwestern corner of Alberta.
Red-breasted Sapsuckers migrate towards the coast from inland breeding areas in British Columbia and California but they remain all year along the whole Pacific Coast from the British Columbia to Baja Califonia.
They feed on sap from trees but also insects and fruit.
Where to find Red-breasted Sapsuckers:
Red-breasted Sapsuckers can be found in conifer forests, so look out for rows of shallow holes in the bark of trees.
How to attract Red-breasted Sapsuckers to your yard:
Sapsuckers do not as often come to backyards unless you have lots of conifer trees, but they may be tempted with cut fruit.
12. Golden-fronted Woodpecker
Golden-fronted Woodpeckers are extremely rare in New Mexico, but they were sighted in Eunice Municipal Golf Course back in 2016.
Golden-fronted Woodpeckers have black-and-white bars on their backs, tan breasts, yellow napes, and a yellow patch in front of their eyes. Females also have a pale yellow lower belly, and males have a small red patch on the crown.
- Length: 8.7-10.2 in (22-26 cm)
- Weight: 2.6-3.5 oz (73-99 g)
- Wingspan: 16.5-17.3 in (42-44 cm)
Golden-fronted woodpeckers look similar to Red-bellied Woodpeckers and fight to defend their territories against each other where their territories cross in parts of Texas. Birds further south in Mexico have more red coloring n the head and more yellow bellies.
Nicaragua is the most southerly range of the Golden-fronted Woodpecker and up through Mexico into Texas and Oklahoma. They do not migrate.
Texas is the only state in the United States that Golden-fronted Woodpeckers are common all year. In Texas, they range west of Dallas from north to south and are most common in the southeast of the state, south of San Antonio.
Fruit and nuts make up half of the diet of the Golden-fronted Woodpecker, and the rest is insects. They especially love prickly pear cactus and will have purple-stained faces from eating them.
Where to Spot Golden-bellied Woodpeckers:
Golden-fronted Woodpeckers like open woodland and arid scrub, and they are common in backyards.
How to Attract More Golden-Bellied Woodpeckers to Your Yard:
Golden-fronted Woodpeckers are common around backyards and love fruit and jelly, especially oranges.
How Frequently Woodpeckers are Spotted in New Mexico in Summer and Winter
Checklists for the state are a great resource to find out which birds are commonly spotted. These lists show which woodpeckers are most commonly recorded on checklists for New Mexico on ebird in summer and winter.
Woodpeckers in New Mexico in Summer:
Northern Flicker 15.5%
Ladder-backed Woodpecker 9.7%
Hairy Woodpecker 8.7%
Downy Woodpecker 4.8%
Acorn Woodpecker 4.3%
Lewis’s Woodpecker 1.2%
Williamson’s Sapsucker 0.9%
Red-headed Woodpecker 0.5%
American Three-toed Woodpecker 0.5%
Gila Woodpecker 0.3%
Arizona Woodpecker 0.1%
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker <0.1%
Red-bellied Woodpecker <0.1%
Golden-fronted Woodpecker <0.1%
Woodpeckers in New Mexico in Winter:
Northern Flicker 30.9%
Ladder-backed Woodpecker 12.3%
Downy Woodpecker 7.4%
Hairy Woodpecker 6.5%
Acorn Woodpecker 2.7%
Williamson’s Sapsucker 0.8%
Lewis’s Woodpecker 0.5%
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 0.4%
Gila Woodpecker 0.3%
American Three-toed Woodpecker 0.1%
Arizona Woodpecker <0.1%
Red-bellied Woodpecker <0.1%
Red-headed Woodpecker <0.1%
Red-breasted Sapsucker <0.1%