Merlins are small but fierce falcons that have as many as nine subspecies, three are in North America and the rest are in Europe and Asia.
In North America, these three subspecies have varying degrees of coloration depending on their geographic location.
The Black Merlin, Pacific Northwest or Coastal Forest Merlins are very dark blue almost black with white or brown-streaked undersides. The Taiga Merlins have intermediate coloring and Prairie Merlins are the palest of the three.
They are all darker on the back and paler on the underside, but this may range from white to brown. They have small hooked bills and yellow skin at the base of their dark bills and around their dark eyes.
- Falco columbarius
- Length: 11 – 13 in (28 – 33 cm)
- Weight: 7.4 oz (210 g)
- Wingspan: 23 – 26 in (58 – 66 cm)
Merlins breed in Canada, Alaska, and northern US states before migrating into the rest of the US, and down into northern South America. They also breed in northern Europe and migrate to southern Europe and the Middle East for winter.
Habitat And Diet
You can find Pacific Northwest Merlins in coastal areas, Prairie Merlins in open areas with shrubs, and Taiga Merlins near forested openings near water. Merlins are slowly moving into urban areas too.
Merlins are usually on the hunt for small birds, whichever has the most supply in their habitat. They attack from the air, chasing their prey at high speed until their prey becomes exhausted.
Breeding pairs also hunt together, with one bird flushing out prey from the ground and the other catching the disturbed prey from above. They will also supplement their main diet with other animals like insects and reptiles.
Nests of Merlins are mostly in cliffs and tree cavities without the adults adding any material to them. Sometimes, they will use abandoned birds’ nests. What’s important for Merlins is that they be able to see over their territory. The female lays four to five eggs and will incubate them for about a month.
Merlins were once known as “Pigeon Hawk” in North America.