There are 8 species of Woodpecker in Vermont:
- Hairy Woodpecker
- Black-backed Woodpecker
- Northern Flicker
- Downy Woodpecker
- Red-bellied Woodpecker
- Pileated Woodpecker
- Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
- Red-headed Woodpecker
You may have to get out and go birding in the woods and forest to stand the best chance of seeing woodpeckers in Vermont but some such as the Downy, Hairy, Red-bellied Woodpeckers, and Northern Flickers can be seen at backyard feeders.
Some woodpeckers migrate from Vermont and head south for the winter such as the Northern Flicker, Yellow-bellied sapsucker, and Red-headed Woodpecker.
The biggest woodpecker in Vermont is the Pileated Woodpecker and the smallest woodpecker in Vermont is the Downy Woodpecker.
1. Hairy Woodpecker
The Hairy Woodpecker can be seen in Vermont all year.
These medium-sized woodpeckers have a black and white pattern and a large white patch on their backs. The males have a flash of red towards the back of their heads.
Length: 7.1-10.2 in (18-26 cm)
Weight: 1.4-3.4 oz (40-95 g)
Wingspan: 13.0-16.1 in (33-41 cm)
It is visually similar to the Downy woodpecker but larger. As it is often found in the same areas it is hard to tell them apart. They can be seen on backyard feeders and are a powerful small bird that makes a whinnying sound or explosive peak calls.
Hairy Woodpeckers’ diet is mostly insects such as beetle larvae, ants, and bark beetles but they will also eat bees, caterpillars, spiders, moth pupae, and millipedes.
This Woodpecker nests in the cavities of dead trees or dead parts of trees and lay between 3-6 white eggs.
Where to spot Hairy Woodpeckers:
You can find Hairy Woodpeckers in woodlands on trunks or main branches of large trees but they are also found in a wide variety of habitats including woodlots, parks, and cemeteries.
How to attract more Hairy Woodpeckers to your backyard
Hairy Woodpeckers benefit from squirrel-proof suet feeders with a cage to stop larger birds from taking all the turns. A bulk pack of suet cakes is a more economical way of buying them. Also, black oil sunflower seeds attract more Hairy Woodpeckers to your yard and if you combine them with suet in a great combination suet and hopper feeder then you get two feeders in one.
2. Black-backed Woodpecker
The Black-backed Woodpecker does not migrate but they are uncommon in Vermont as this is the southern edge of their range.
They are small, so are hard to spot, as they are only robin-sized, with a black back helping them to blend in. They have black and white stripes on their sides and mostly white under-belly. The male has a yellow cap.
Length: 9.1 in (23 cm)
Weight: 2.1-3.1 oz (61-88 g)
Wingspan: 15.8-16.5 in (40-42 cm)
It specializes in eating wood-boring beetle larvae, especially in newly burned forests. It does this by flaking the bark off the dead trees; so burnt forests are your best bet on seeing the Black-backed Woodpecker. They make a single sharp pik call.
This is one of the less common woodpeckers that have three toes rather than most species that have four.
Black-backed Woodpeckers make a new nest hole for every nesting attempt, which is great for other birds that rely on ready-made nest holes, and lay 3-4 white eggs. They are similar to the American Three-toed Woodpecker but without the white patch on their backs.
Where to spot Black-backed Woodpeckers:
The Black-backed Woodpecker is found in forests that have had fires in the last 8 years.
How to attract more Black-backed Woodpeckers to your backyard:
Black-backed Woodpeckers are not usually seen at feeders.
3. Northern Flicker
Northern Flickers are found throughout Vermont and breed in the state but do migrate and fly south for the winter.
In Vermont, Northern Flickers have a flash of yellow in the wings and tails and a white patch on its rump in flight plus a red nape of the neck in the males and are known as yellow-shafted flickers. They are large brown woodpeckers with colorful black-spotted plumage.
Length: 11.0-12.2 in (28-31 cm)
Weight: 3.9-5.6 oz (110-160 g)
Wingspan: 16.5-20.1 in (42-51 cm)
Northern Flickers make a loud ringing call with a piercing yelp. They nest in tree cavities and they lay 5-8 white eggs. They mainly eat ants and beetles but also fruits and seeds and can often be seen on the ground digging them up with their curved bill.
Where to spot Northern Flickers:
Northern Flickers can be seen in open woods, forest edges, and parks, and suburbs. They are often on the ground foraging for food.
How to attract more Northern Flickers to your backyard feeders:
Northern Flickers do come as often to bird feeders but they can be seen at a birdbath so adding an attractive pedestal birdbath or a heated birdbath for the winter is your best bet. You can try to encourage them by having black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, suet, cracked corn, peanuts, and millet on suet cages, large hoppers, or platform feeders.
4. Downy Woodpecker
Downy Woodpeckers are in Vermont all year and do not migrate. They are very active and this makes them fun to watch with their acrobatics.
The Downy Woodpecker is the smallest Woodpecker in Vermont and is the smallest in North America.
- Length: 5.5-6.7 in (14-17 cm)
- Weight: 0.7-1.0 oz (21-28 g)
- Wingspan: 9.8-11.8 in (25-30 cm)
Although visually very similar to the Hairy Woodpecker it is a third smaller and with a smaller beak compared to other Woodpeckers. It is usually a Downy Woodpecker that you see at feeders as they are more common.
The Downy Woodpecker has black and white patterning, being mostly black with a white patch on their backs. The males also have a red patch on the back of their heads.
Downy Woodpeckers can be found on backyard bird feeders. They make a high-pitched pik sound and the descending whinny call and are very active so fun to watch. Downy Woodpeckers nest in dead tree cavities and lay between 3-8 small (0.8 in) white eggs
Downy woodpeckers eat mainly insects, especially larvae, nuts and they also eat berries, acorns, and grains. They will sometimes be seen drinking from hummingbird feeders.
Where to spot Downy Woodpeckers:
Downy Woodpeckers are often seen mixed in with other small birds such as nuthatches and chickadees. They can be found in open woodlands but also in parks, orchards, and backyards and are commonly seen at bird feeders. They can also be seen amongst tall weeds.
How to attract more Downy Woodpeckers to your backyard:
An upside-down suet feeder is excellent for smaller woodpeckers such as Downy Woodpeckers as they offer protection from the rain and help stop bully birds. A bulk pack of suet cakes is a more economical way of buying them.
5. Red-bellied Woodpecker
Red-bellied Woodpeckers are uncommon in Vermont as this is the far north of their range. They can be found in Vermont year-round but may move to the south in winter.
Red-bellied Woodpeckers can be mistaken for Red-headed Woodpeckers as they have red caps but this is much smaller than the Red-headed Woodpecker.
Length: 9.4 in (24 cm)
Weight: 2.0-3.2 oz (56-91 g)
Wingspan: 13.0-16.5 in (33-42 cm)
They have a very pale red belly that can be hard to spot. They have the common black and white markings over their backs. Females have a red nape but no red on the crown.
Red-bellied Woodpeckers can often be seen at bird feeders, especially if you live near wooded areas. They make a distinctive loud rolling call that means you will often hear them before you see them.
Red-bellied Woodpeckers eat insects, spiders, seeds from grasses, fruit, and nuts. They will also sometimes eat nestlings. They nest in dead trees and may use the same nest year after year. They lay 4-5 white eggs on a bed of wood chips.
The tongue of the Red-bellied Woodpecker sticks out 2 inches past the beak and is barbed at the tip and along with sticky spit, this helps catch prey from deep crevices.
Where to spot Red-bellied Woodpeckers:
Red-bellied Woodpeckers are common in woodlands and forests in the eastern US but can be seen on bird feeders.
How to attract more Red-bellied Woodpeckers to your backyard feeders:
They can also be seen on hummingbird feeders and will feed on fruit. Planting native berry trees such as hawthorn or mountain-ash.
6. Pileated Woodpecker
The Pileated Woodpecker is the biggest Woodpecker in Vermont and can be found all year in the state.
With its’ flaming-red triangular crest the Pileated Woodpecker is very striking.
Length: 15.8-19.3 in (40-49 cm)
Weight: 8.8-12.3 oz (250-350 g)
Wingspan: 26.0-29.5 in (66-75 cm)
It is one of the biggest woodpeckers being nearly the size of a crow. It is mostly black with a white strip and when flying the white underside of the wings can be seen. Males have an additional red stripe on the cheek.
Pileated Woodpeckers mostly eat carpenter ants from dead trees and fallen logs but they also eat beetle larvae, termites, and other insects as well as fruit and nuts such as blackberries, sumac berries, dogwood, and elderberry. They make a loud shrill, whinnying call and deep loud drumming.
Dead trees are used for nesting sites for Pileated Woodpeckers. They usually make a new nest each year, and the old nest site is then used by other species of birds. They usually lay 3-5 white eggs.
Where to spot Pileated Woodpeckers:
They are usually found in mature forests or drowned forests with lots of dead trees but they also visit backyard feeders especially for suet. They make distinctive rectangular holes in trees so look out for these.
How to attract more Pileated Woodpeckers to your backyard:
Pileated Woodpeckers come to backyard bird feeders, especially for suet. They also eat black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, suet, peanuts, and mealworms. Also, try putting up a nest box to attract a breeding pair.
7. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
The Yellow-bellied Sapsucker is migratory and flies south in the winter but can be seen in Vermont in summer for breeding.
It is relatively small and is about the size of a robin. They are mostly black with red foreheads and the male has a red throat.
Length: 7.1-8.7 in (18-22 cm)
Weight: 1.5-1.9 oz (43-55 g)
Wingspan: 13.4-15.8 in (34-40 cm)
Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers make holes in trees and use their brush-tipped tongues to get the sap out. They make neat rows of holes in horizontal rows so look out for these in young paper birch, yellow birch, red or sugar maple, and hickory trees. The holes need to be maintained to ensure a flow of sap. They make a loud mewing call and they nest in tree cavities and usually have 5-6 white eggs.
Where to spot Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers:
Young deciduous forests often on birch or maple trees where they make neat rows of sapwells to feed.
How to attract more Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers to your backyard:
8. Red-headed Woodpecker
The Red-headed Woodpecker is uncommon in Vermont, they can be found during the breeding season but head south in the winter.
With their bright red-heads and black and white bold markings, these woodpeckers are one of the easiest to identify. Red-headed Woodpeckers are medium-sized with powerful spike bills. They have white undersides, black backs and large white bands on the wings, and short tails.
Length: 7.5-9.1 in (19-23 cm)
Weight: 2.0-3.2 oz (56-91 g)
Wingspan: 16.5 in (42 cm)
They can fiercely defend their territories, even removing or destroying the eggs of other birds or ducks. Red-headed Woodpeckers will catch insects in flight as well as in crevices like other woodpeckers.
Insects such as beetles, midges, honeybees, and grasshoppers, make up only about one-third of their diet. The other two-thirds are plant materials such as seeds, nuts, and berries. Red-headed Woodpeckers will also take nestlings or eggs from other birds and sometimes mice.
Red-headed Woodpeckers make a shrill call and nest in tree cavities sometimes reusing a site, and lay 4-5 white eggs. Unfortunately, huge declines of 70% of Red-headed Woodpeckers have occurred between 1966 to 2014 due to habitat loss.
Where to spot Red-headed Woodpeckers:
They can be found in open woodlots, farms, dead timber in swamps, or pine savannas. Sometimes they visit backyard bird feeders.
How to attract Red-headed Woodpeckers to your backyard feeder:
Red-headed Woodpeckers visit backyards for suet so try this suet feeder that helps stop squirrels and bully birds. These suet cakes come in a cheaper bulk pack. They will also eat seeds, nuts, and fruit such as apples, berries, and grapes.
How to Attract Woodpeckers to Your Backyard
There are so many choices of bird feeders and food that can make it difficult to know what is best to buy so check out these options as the best for woodpeckers to save you time and stop you from wasting your money.
Best bird feeders to attract woodpeckers:
- An upside-down suet feeder is excellent for smaller woodpeckers such as Downy Woodpeckers as they offer protection from the rain and help stop bully birds.
- Pileated woodpeckers prefer suet feeders with tail props
- Squirrel-proof suet feeders with a cage to stop larger birds from taking all the turns.
The best suet and birdseed to attract woodpeckers are:
- A bulk pack of suet cakes is a more economical way of buying them.
- Black oil sunflower seeds have a thinner shell which makes them easier for birds to open.
- Mealworm suet is a tasty treat for woodpeckers
- Peanut butter suet is a high energy feed that keeps woodpeckers going in the cold winter months
Birdbaths to attract woodpeckers to your backyard:
- An attractive pedestal birdbath will provide drinking and cleaning opportunities for woodpeckers
- A heated birdbath for the winter is your best bet to provide drinking water that does not freeze.
Nest boxes to attract more woodpeckers to your backyard:
- These nest boxes can attract a breeding pair of woodpeckers
- Nest boxes for flickers are also a great choice
Native berry-producing plants to attract more woodpeckers to your backyard: