7 Species of Hawk in Maryland

Sharp-shinned Hawk for identification

There are 7 species of Hawk in Maryland:

  1. Sharp-shinned Hawk
  2. Cooper’s Hawk
  3. Red-shouldered Hawk
  4. Broad-winged Hawk
  5. Red-tailed Hawk
  6. Rough-legged Hawk
  7. Northern Harrier

Do you want to know what the birds of prey are that you can see soaring above you? Do you know your Sharp-shinned Hawk from your Coopers Hawk or what hawks you can see in Maryland well read on to find out all that and more?

Did you know that the largest hawks of Maryland are the Rough-legged Hawk and the smallest hawks of Maryland are the Sharp-shinned Hawk? Also that the most common hawk in Maryland is the Red-tailed Hawk. 

Hawks are birds of prey and hunt and eat birds and small mammals as well as snakes and frogs.  Hawks can see in ultraviolet light, which helps them hunt down their prey.

To find Hawks in Maryland head to woodland for the smaller hawks such as the Sharp-shinned Hawk and Cooper’s Hawk or open grassland, marshes, or high ridges for the larger species.

To identify Hawks you need a good pair of binoculars. These Celestron binoculars are fantastic, feature-packed, waterproof, mid-range binoculars that punch above their weight for the price point.

Why don’t you also check out all the backyard birds in Maryland and get a free ID printable checklist?

The 7 Species of Hawk in Maryland

1. Sharp-shinned Hawk

Sharp-shinned Hawk for identification

Although highly migratory, the Sharp-shinned Hawk can be seen all year in Maryland. They are not very common and are in less than 3% of bird sightings in Maryland.

The Sharp-shinned Hawk is the smallest hawk in Maryland. They are smaller than a crow but slightly larger than a Jay. 

The females are a third bigger than the male. They have long tails, with a square end, and short, rounded wings and have small heads.

  • Length: 9.4-13.4 in (24-34 cm)
  • Weight: 3.1-7.7 oz (87-218 g)
  • Wingspan: 16.9-22.1 in (43-56 cm)

Adult Sharp-shinned Hawks are blue-gray across the back and have a red-orange breast. They have dark bands across their tails.

They are very secretive but can be seen as they fly across open areas at the edges of forests. They are very agile and can speed through dense woods to catch their prey in flight, usually songbirds. 

They can sometimes be seen near feeders catching small birds, but if you have problems with them in your backyard remove the feeder for a few weeks.

Sharp-shinned Hawks pluck their prey on a stump or low branch before eating it. They usually eat songbirds about the size of a robin.

Nests of the Sharp-shinned Hawk are often in conifer trees in dense cover, usually towards the top of tall trees. The nest is quite large being 1-2 feet in diameter and 4-6 inches deep. They lay 3-8 white or pale-blue mottled eggs.

2. Cooper’s Hawk

Cooper's Hawk

Cooper’s Hawks can be seen all year round in Maryland. They are more common woodland hawks than the Sharp-shinned Hawk. They have been sighted in 5% of checklists in Maryland. 

The Cooper’s Hawk looks very similar to the Sharp-shinned Hawk but is bigger at about the size of a crow. They can be hard to identify between them as they have the same blue-gray back and red-orange breast and also with dark bands on the tail. They have a larger head that projects well beyond the wings, unlike the Sharp-shinned Hawk.

Male:

  • Length: 14.6-15.3 in (37-39 cm)
  • Weight: 7.8-14.5 oz (220-410 g)
  • Wingspan: 24.4-35.4 in (62-90 cm)

Female:

  • Length: 16.5-17.7 in (42-45 cm)
  • Weight: 11.6-24.0 oz (330-680 g)
  • Wingspan: 29.5-35.4 in (75-90 cm)

Look out for them at the edge of forests, but they can also be seen at feeders looking for an easy meal. If you do have problems take feeders down for a couple of weeks and the Hawks will move on.

Cooper’s Hawk feed on medium-sized birds and small mammals and nest in tall trees, often on top of an old nest of a large bird or clump of mistletoe. They lay 2-6 pale blue to bluish-white eggs.

3. Red-shouldered Hawk

Red-shouldered Hawk for identification

The Red-shouldered Hawk can be found all year in Maryland. They tend to be seen near wet forests hunting along a stream or pond. Their prey is mammals and frogs or snakes.

  • Length: 16.9-24.0 in (43-61 cm)
  • Weight: 17.1-27.3 oz (486-774 g)
  • Wingspan: 37.0-43.7 in (94-111 cm)

Red-shouldered Hawks are distinctly marked, with dark and white checkered wings and reddish barring on the breast. They are medium-sized, between the size of a crow and a swan with a strongly banded tail. They make a loud cack-cack-cack-cack call.

Nests are often reused each year in a broad-leaved tree near water. They lay 2-5 white or bluish eggs.

4. Broad-winged Hawk

Broad-winged Hawk for identification

Broad-winged Hawks breed in Maryland, before migrating in large numbers to South America in a swirling flock called a kettle. They are not often observed in Maryland, being in less than 1% of recorded checklists on ebird. 

The migration in fall is the best chance to see them.

  • Length: 13.4-17.3 in (34-44 cm)
  • Weight: 9.3-19.8 oz (265-560 g)
  • Wingspan: 31.9-39.4 in (81-100 cm)

The Broad-winged Hawk is a compact, stocky bird between the size of a crow and goose. They have reddish-brown heads, barred breasts, and narrowly banded short square tails.

Hunting from a perch often on the edge of woods or by water, these hawks eat small mammals, frogs, snakes, and even young turtles.

The Broad-winged Hawk often reuses the nest of another animal, such as a crow or squirrel and lays 2-3 whitish eggs.

5. Red-tailed Hawks

Red-tailed Hawk

Red-tailed Hawks can be found in Maryland all year and are common, being seen in 10% of sightings in Maryland.

They are also the easiest to spot, often on long car journeys, as they circle slowly over open fields looking for prey. You can also see them perched on telephone poles.

Male

  • Length: 17.7-22.1 in (45-56 cm)
  • Weight: 24.3-45.9 oz (690-1300 g)
  • Wingspan: 44.9-52.4 in (114-133 cm)

Female

  • Length: 19.7-25.6 in (50-65 cm)
  • Weight: 31.8-51.5 oz (900-1460 g)
  • Wingspan: 44.9-52.4 in (114-133 cm)

As their name suggests, the Red-tailed Hawk has a distinctive short, wide red tail. They are large, with broad, rounded wings, between the size of a crow and goose. Most Red-tailed Hawks are brown on the back and pale underneath.

The high-pitched descending raspy-screech sound of the Red-tailed Hawk is often used in movies for all raptors. They eat small mammals, birds, and reptiles. 

Nests are high in very tall trees or on cliff ledges and sometimes on tall buildings or towers. They lay 2-3 whitish, brown blotched eggs.

6. Rough-legged Hawk

Rough Legged Hawk

Rough-legged Hawks migrate from the arctic and are found in Maryland in the winter. They are not very common in the state and are only seen in less than 1% of sightings. Rough-legged Hawks are usually sighted hovering over marshes and open fields or perched on a pole.

  • Length: 18.5-20.5 in (47-52 cm)
  • Weight: 25.2-49.4 oz (715-1400 g)
  • Wingspan: 52.0-54.3 in (132-138 cm)

The feathered legs give the Rough-legged Hawks their name and help to keep them warm in the arctic. They are fairly large hawks, between the size of a crow and a goose. 

This predominantly dark-drown species occurs in both light and dark forms, with dark patches at the bend of the wing, end of their tails, and across the belly. They have broad wings that are fairly long and narrow, compared to other hawks.

Lemmings and voles provide most of the prey for Rough-legged Hawks. Voles, mice, ground squirrels, and other small mammals provide winter prey in states such as Maryland. Nests are usually on a high cliff ledge and they lay 3-5 pale bluish-white eggs.

7. Northern Harrier

Northern Harrier Hawk for identification

The Northern Harrier is in Maryland all year.  This slim, longed-tailed Hawk can be seen gliding low over grassland or marshes.  They are not often spotted.

  • Length: 18.1-19.7 in (46-50 cm)
  • Weight: 10.6-26.5 oz (300-750 g)
  • Wingspan: 40.2-46.5 in (102-118 cm)

These hawks are slender with long broad wings and are between the size of a crow and goose.  They often fly with the tips of their wings higher than their bodies in a v-shape.  Females are brown and males are gray above and white below and they have a white rump patch.

Northern Harriers mostly eat small mammals and small birds. They nest on the ground in dense vegetation such as reeds, willows, or brushtails. They lay 4-5 dull white eggs

See Hawks in Maryland

These Celestron binoculars are fantastic, feature-packed, waterproof, mid-range binoculars that punch above their weight for the price point, helping you find and identify those hawks of Maryland.

Get involved in Hawk Watch in spring and fall at these sites to help count the Hawks of Maryland and provide some citizen science in the best locations for Hawks in Maryland: