Hawks are birds of prey and hunt and eat birds and small mammals, snakes, and frogs. They can see ultraviolet light, which helps them hunt down their prey.
There are 10 species of hawks recognized on state checklists as regularly occurring in Arizona, and 5 additional species are considered rare or accidental.
To find Hawks head to woodland for the smaller hawks such as the Sharp-shinned Hawk and Cooper’s Hawk or open grassland, marshes, or high ridges for the larger species.
This guide will help you identify the species of hawks in Arizona according to avibase and ordered by the number of sighting recorded on ebird. Some of these birds migrate, and some remain all year, and this information is included for each species.
Hawks that are more common in summer in Arizona include the Gray Hawk and Swainson’s Hawk, while hawks that are more common in winter are Red-tailed Hawk and Northern Harrier.
The 15 Species of Hawk in Arizona:
1. Red-tailed Hawk
In winter, Red-tailed Hawks are the most frequently spotted hawks in Arizona and appeared in 27% of checklists submitted by bird watchers for the state. In summer, they are in 13% of checklists.
As their name suggests, Red-tailed Hawks have a distinctive short, wide red tail. They are large, with broad, rounded wings. Most Red-tailed Hawks are brown on the back and pale underneath.
They are also the easiest to spot, often on long car journeys, as they circle slowly over open fields looking for prey such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles. You can also see them perched on telephone poles.
- Length: 17.7-22.1 in (45-56 cm)
- Weight: 24.3-45.9 oz (690-1300 g)
- Wingspan: 44.9-52.4 in (114-133 cm)
- Length: 19.7-25.6 in (50-65 cm)
- Weight: 31.8-51.5 oz (900-1460 g)
- Wingspan: 44.9-52.4 in (114-133 cm)
Red-tailed Hawk Call:
The high-pitched descending raspy-screech sound of the Red-tailed Hawk is often used in movies for all birds of prey.
Red-tailed Hawks remain resident in the US and Mexico, but those birds in Alaska, Canada, and the northern Great Plains fly south for winter.
Nests are high in tall trees, cliff ledges, and sometimes on tall buildings or towers. They lay 2-3 whitish, brown-spotted eggs.
2. Cooper’s Hawk
Cooper’s Hawks are residents of Arizona all year, and they are more frequently spotted in winter as birds migrate in from northern breeding ranges.
They appear in 12% of checklists submitted by bird watchers in winter. In summer, they are recorded in 8% of checklists.
The Cooper’s Hawk looks very similar to the Sharp-shinned Hawk but is bigger at about the size of a crow. They can be hard to identify between them as they have the same blue-gray back and red-orange breast and also with dark bands on the tail.
They have a larger head that projects well beyond the wings, unlike the Sharp-shinned Hawk.
- Length: 14.6-15.3 in (37-39 cm)
- Weight: 7.8-14.5 oz (220-410 g)
- Wingspan: 24.4-35.4 in (62-90 cm)
- Length: 16.5-17.7 in (42-45 cm)
- Weight: 11.6-24.0 oz (330-680 g)
- Wingspan: 29.5-35.4 in (75-90 cm)
Cooper’s Hawks remain resident over most of the US, but some in the north of the range, including Canada, migrate south for the winter down as far as Mexico and Honduras.
Look out for them at the edge of forests, but they can also be seen at feeders looking for an easy meal.
They feed on medium-sized birds and small mammals and nest in tall trees, often on top of an old nest of a large bird or clump of mistletoe. They lay 2-6 pale blue to bluish-white eggs.
3. Northern Harrier
Northern Harriers are only spotted in Arizona during winter, then they fly north for the breeding season.
They appear in 10% of winter checklists and migrate into the state between August and October. In spring they start leaving in February until the end of April.
Northern Harriers are slender with long broad wings and are between the size of a crow and a goose. They often fly with the tips of their wings higher than their bodies in a v-shape.
Females are brown, and males are gray above and white below, and they have a white rump patch.
- Length: 18.1-19.7 in (46-50 cm)
- Weight: 10.6-26.5 oz (300-750 g)
- Wingspan: 40.2-46.5 in (102-118 cm)
Northern Harriers that breed in Alaska, Canada, the northern Great Plains, and the Northeast before migrating south for the winter to southern states, Mexico and Central America. Those in the middle of the range remain all year.
This slim, longed-tailed hawk can be seen gliding low over grassland or marshes.
Northern Harriers mostly eat small mammals and small birds. They nest on the ground in dense vegetation such as reeds, willows, or brushtails. They lay 4-5 dull white eggs.
4. Gray hawk
During summer, Gray Hawks are found in the southeast of Arizona for breeding. They appear in 5% of summer checklists and migrate into Arizona in March and leave in October.
Gray Hawks are light gray in color with solid gray on the upper parts, barred on the chest and belly. Their tails are long and have three white bands against black. They have short, broad wings and are smaller hawks in this family.
- Length: 18–24 in (46–61 cm)
- Weight: 13.8-16.6 oz (391-470 g)
Gray Hawks migrate and spend the summer breeding in Central America, Mexico, and Southern Texas, and Arizona.
Try looking for Gray hawks in cottonwood and willow woods, with streams or rivers nearby. They can be spotted soaring over open areas or perched on branches waiting patiently for lizards.
5. Sharp-shinned Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawks can be found in Arizona during winter, and they can be spotted mostly in the center of the state near Flagstaff, Tonto National Forest, and Coconino National Forest.
They appear in 3% of winter checklists and migrate into the state from mid-August and leave in April and May.
Adult Sharp-shinned Hawks are small hawks with blue-gray across the back and red-orange breasts. They have dark bands across their tails.
The females are a third larger than the male. They have long square-ended tails, short rounded wings, and small heads.
- Length: 9.4-13.4 in (24-34 cm)
- Weight: 3.1-7.7 oz (87-218 g)
- Wingspan: 16.9-22.1 in (43-56 cm)
Sharp-shined Hawks that breed in Canada and some northern states migrate south. Those birds in the Appalachians and Western Mountains may remain all year.
Sharp-shined Hawks are very secretive but can be seen as they fly across open areas at the edges of forests. They are very agile and can speed through dense woods to catch their prey in flight, usually songbirds.
They can sometimes be seen near feeders catching small birds, but if you have problems with them in your backyard, remove the feeder for a few weeks.
Sharp-shinned Hawks pluck their prey on a stump or low branch before eating it. They usually eat songbirds about the size of a robin.
Nests of the Sharp-shinned Hawk are often in conifer trees in dense cover, usually towards the top of tall trees. The nest is quite large, being 1-2 feet in diameter and 4-6 inches deep. They lay 3-8 white or pale-blue mottled eggs.
6. Swainson’s Hawk
Swainson’s Hawks can be seen in Arizona during summer, mainly between April and mid-October. However, they are more likely to be spotted in the south of the state and appear in 3% of summer checklists.
Swainson’s Hawks are long-winged hawks with short tails and pointed wingtips. They are usually brown or gray mottled on the back and with lighter bellies and brown or red chests.
When in flight, you can see the contrast between the black flight feathers on the lower edges of the wings and tips and the white upper part of the wing (called the linings).
- Length: 18.9-22.1 in (48-56 cm)
- Weight: 24.4-48.2 oz (693-1367 g)
Swainson’s Hawks can be found in open country in the West and over the Great Plains in the summer before heading to South America for winter in large flocks, reaching into the thousands. They breed as far as British Columbia and Alaska and in the West from the Pacific to the Midwest.
May and September are the best times to see these hawks as they migrate long distances and are famous for providing spectacular displays in the tens of thousands of birds during the day.
Swainson’s Hawks hunt for rodents by perching on any high points, such as utility poles or fences, making them easier to spot in the relatively flat lands where they hunt. If no high points are available, they may be found on the ground in grassland and fields, hunting for insects.
They may also eat Burrowing Owls in areas where they are abundant, but they are not fussy and eat anything from snakes and lizards to bats, mice, and rabbits or crickets and dragonflies.
There are not many nest sites in the open country for Swainson’s Hawks, so they use any trees near fields or low mesquite bushes and power poles. The nests are a large collection of twigs and sticks and can be up to 2 feet wide and up to a foot high. The inside of the nest is lined with softer material, such as dung, bark, wool, and grass.
7. Zone-tailed hawk
Zone-tailed Hawks can only be seen in Arizona during spring and summer for their breeding season between March and September.
They are mostly spotted in the south of the state and appear in 3% of summer checklists.
Zone-tailed Hawks are dark, almost black hawks with barring on the flight feathers’ underside and white bands across the tail.
- Length: 17.7-22.1 in (45-56 cm)
- Weight: 21.4-23.5 oz (607-667 g)
- Wingspan: 46.9-55.1 in (119-140 cm)
- Weight: 29.8-33.0 oz (845-937 g)
- Wingspan: 46.9-55.1 in (119-140 cm)
Zone-tailed Hawks are another Hawk that can only be spotted in a few states along the border during the breeding season. In winter, they migrate further south into Mexico. In South America, Zone-tailed Hawks remain all year.
They hunt along canyons and cliffs, often in high elevations, and can be spotted soaring over desert and scrub. They will also hunt down to coastal plains.
Mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians make up the diet of Zone-tailed Hawks. They hunt by flying low and using the landscape as a screen to hide them until it’s too late.
8. Common Black Hawk
Common Black Hawks are, in fact not that common in Arizona but they can be seen in the south of the state.
Common Black Hawks have broad wings, short tails, long legs, and large bodies. They are black, except for a white band across the tail.
- Length: 17 – 21 in (43 – 53)
- Weight: 33oz (930g)
They can be spotted along the southern border from California to Texas, mostly in summer. However, they usually remain resident all year in their range in Mexico and Central America.
Although called ‘common’, they are not very common in the United States, and only about 250 pairs are thought to exist here.
They hunt along streams near woods, looking for crabs, fish, frogs, and lizards, but they will also hunt birds and small mammals.
9. Ferruginous Hawk
Ferruginous Hawks are quite rare in Arizona, but they can be spotted in the south of the state during winter.
Ferruginous Hawks are the largest hawks in North America. They have large heads and long wings. To make identification harder, they come in a light and a dark morph, which can vary quite considerably in the color pattern.
The more common light morph Ferruginous Hawks are white underneath on the wings, belly, and head. Their backs and the upper side of the wings are a rusty brown, and they have darker legs. Immature light morphs have more brown spotting on the belly and legs.
Dark morphs are much rarer, and they have brown bellies and under the wings, except for white flight feathers on the wingtips and tail.
- Length: 22.1-27.2 in (56-69 cm)
- Weight: 34.5-73.2 oz (977-2074 g)
- Wingspan: 52.4-55.9 in (133-142 cm)
Ferruginous Hawks are another species of hawk that lives in the open country of the West. They breed as far north as Southern Canada and down to Nevada and Utah. In winter, they move short distances to Southern States and Mexico. Some birds may remain residents all year in the middle of their range.
You can spot Ferruginous Hawks in grassland and shrublands in the low country. They do not cross the Rockies, even when migrating. Small mammals make up the majority of their diet, and depending on what is available, they eat jackrabbits and cottontail rabbits in the West and ground squirrels and prairie dogs in the East.
They are daytime hunters and hunt both on the wing and by perching or even hunting on the ground.
Their nests are very large and can measure 3 feet high and 3 feet across, and they can lay up to 8 eggs.
10. Northern Goshawk
Northern Goshawks are rare hawks in Arizona, and over the past ten years, they have been spotted in Flagstaff, Kaibab National Forest, and Grand Canyon National Park.
Northern Goshawks are the bigger and fiercer relative of the Sharp-shinned and Cooper’s Hawks. They are mostly gray with short, broad wings and a long tail and have a white stripe over their yellow eyes.
- Length: 20.9-25.2 in (53-64 cm)
- Weight: 22.3-48.1 oz (631-1364 g)
- Wingspan: 40.5-46.1 in (103-117 cm)
Northern Goshawks are residents in Alaska, Canada, and the mountainous west. Some younger birds may migrate to Central States during the winter.
They live in large forests, so they are hard to find, especially as they are very secretive and can be aggressive if you get too close to a nest.
Northern Goshawks live in large tracks of mostly coniferous or mixed forests. They watch for prey on high perches and mostly eat medium-sized birds and small mammals.
Northern Goshawks prepare up to eight nests and lay between 2-4 bluish-white eggs.
11. Red-shouldered Hawk
Red-shouldered Hawks are considered an accidental species in Arizona, but they can be spotted in areas like Phoenix and Tucson.
Red-shouldered Hawks are distinctly marked, with dark and white checkered wings and reddish barring on the breast. They are medium-sized, between the size of a crow and a swan with a strongly banded tail. They make a loud cack-cack-cack-cack call.
- Length: 16.9-24.0 in (43-61 cm)
- Weight: 17.1-27.3 oz (486-774 g)
- Wingspan: 37.0-43.7 in (94-111 cm)
Red-shouldered Hawk Call:
Red-shouldered Hawks are resident in eastern states, but those in the Northeast may migrate further south for winter. These hawks are also residents on the West Coast.
They tend to be seen near wet forests hunting along a stream or pond. Their prey is mammals and frogs or snakes.
Nests are often reused each year in a broad-leaved tree near water. They lay 2-5 white or bluish eggs.
12. Rough-legged Hawk
Rough-legged Hawks are considered an accidental species in Arizona, but they have been spotted in Coconino National Forest in 2021.
The feathered legs give the Rough-legged Hawks their name and help to keep them warm in the arctic. They are fairly large hawks, between the size of a crow and a goose.
This predominantly dark-drown species occurs in light and dark forms, with dark patches at the bend of the wing, end of their tails, and across the belly. They have broad wings that are relatively long and narrow compared to other hawks.
- Length: 18.5-20.5 in (47-52 cm)
- Weight: 25.2-49.4 oz (715-1400 g)
- Wingspan: 52.0-54.3 in (132-138 cm)
Rough-legged Hawks breed in Alaska and northern Canada before migrating to the US for winter. They are usually sighted hovering over marshes and open fields or perched on a pole.
Lemmings and voles provide most of the prey for Rough-legged Hawks. Voles, mice, ground squirrels, and other small mammals provide winter prey in states such as West Virginia. Nests are usually on a high cliff ledge, and they lay 3-5 pale bluish-white eggs.
13. Short-tailed Hawk
Short-tailed Hawks are accidental species in Arizona, but in 2021 they have been spotted in Madera Canyon, Mt. Graham, and Mt. Lemmon.
Short-tailed Hawks are small hawks that can either be light or dark in color. Dark morphs are very dark brown but with lighter flight feathers underneath. Light morphs are white below and brown on the back. As the name would suggest, they have short tails compared to other hawks.
- Length: 15 – 17 in (38 – 43)
- Weight: 0.8 – 1.1 lb (362 – 500 g )
They live in Mexico, Central and South America, and Florida. Short-tailed Hawks can be hard to spot as they hunt small birds from high up in the sky.
14. Broad-winged Hawk
Broad-winged Hawks are considered an accidental species in Arizona, and according to records, they have been spotted in the state in 2021, in Salero Ranch.
The Broad-winged Hawk is a compact, stocky bird between the size of a crow and goose. They have reddish-brown heads, barred breasts, and narrowly banded short square tails.
- Length: 13.4-17.3 in (34-44 cm)
- Weight: 9.3-19.8 oz (265-560 g)
- Wingspan: 31.9-39.4 in (81-100 cm)
Broad-winged Hawks breed in the Eastern US and Canada before migrating in large numbers to Central, and South America in a swirling flock called a kettle. As a result, the migration in the fall is often the best chance to see them.
Hunting from a perch, often on the edge of woods or water, these hawks eat small mammals, frogs, snakes, and even young turtles.
The Broad-winged Hawk often reuses the nest of another animal, such as a crow or squirrel, and lays 2-3 whitish eggs.
15. White-tailed Hawk
White-tailed Hawks are extremely rare in Arizona, but they are under the official review list of the Arizona Bird Committee.
White-tailed Hawks are distinctive hawks with dark coloring on the back, with red shoulders and a flash of white underneath. Their tails also stand out, being white on the top and underneath and with a dark band running around the edge.
Immatures are speckled across the chest and belly, and some birds can be an all-dark morph. Females are larger than males.
- Length: 18.1-20.5 in (46-52 cm)
- Weight: 31.0-43.6 oz (880-1235 g)
- Wingspan: 50.4-51.6 in (128-131 cm)
- Length: 18.9-22.8 in (48-58 cm)
White-tailed Hawks do not migrate and are more common in South America, with some birds reaching up as far as Texas.
Grasslands and savannahs are the usual hunting grounds for White-tailed Hawks. Rodents, rabbits, lizards, and other birds make up their diet.
They are especially easy to spot after fires when they take advantage of the fleeing animals for a quick meal.
How Frequently Hawks are Spotted in Arizona in Summer and Winter
Checklists for the state are a great resource to find out which birds are commonly spotted. These lists show which Hawks are most commonly recorded on checklists for Arizona on ebird in summer and winter.
Hawks in Arizona in Summer:
Red-tailed Hawk 13.5%
Cooper’s Hawk 8.3%
Gray Hawk 5.1%
Swainson’s Hawk 3.2%
Zone-tailed Hawk 2.8%
Common Black Hawk 1.4%
Northern Goshawk 0.3%
Sharp-shinned Hawk 0.3%
Northern Harrier 0.2%
Red-shouldered Hawk 0.1%
Short-tailed Hawk <0.1%
Ferruginous Hawk <0.1%
Broad-winged Hawk <0.1%
Hawks in Arizona in Winter:
Red-tailed Hawk 27.2%
Cooper’s Hawk 11.9%
Northern Harrier 10.8%
Sharp-shinned Hawk 3.4%
Ferruginous Hawk 1.4%
Red-shouldered Hawk 0.2%
Rough-legged Hawk 0.1%
Zone-tailed Hawk 0.1%
Common Black Hawk 0.1%
Gray Hawk 0.1%
Northern Goshawk <0.1%
Short-tailed Hawk <0.1%
Swainson’s Hawk <0.1%
Broad-winged Hawk <0.1%