Finches are small to medium-sized songbirds with conical bills suitable for breaking seeds and nuts. They have round, compact bodies, notched tails, and relatively pointed wings.
Despite their size, they’re often easy to spot because of their bright yellow and red colors, mostly in males. Females are less colorful than males and blend into their surroundings, and are more green and brown in color.
There are 240 species of True Finches belonging to the Fringillidae family found worldwide, except for the polar regions.
In North America, 17 of these species of finches are recognized as regularly occurring, plus there are several other accidental or introduced species. The finch family also includes some grosbeaks, redpolls, and siskins.
They are called ‘True Finches’ as birds from other families may also be called finches, but they are not officially finches.
Finches love to eat seeds, and they have strong bills that are perfect for cracking them open. However, insects are usually fed to their young because they still can’t crack seeds open on their own.
Finches are highly sociable birds that can often be heard before they are seen as they chatter away in their groups. They don’t necessarily all have a melodious song, but some certainly do, so check them out for yourself.
Nests of finches are simple constructions in trees and shrubs, made from twigs and other woven material and lined with softer material.
A group of Finches is called a “charm”. Maybe that’s also why many finches are caged birds because of their musical voice and their bright colors.
Finches are sadly in decline due to habitat loss, window collisions, pesticide use, and cats. Some are now on Red Lists, but you can help by keeping cats indoors, not using pesticides, and providing natural habitats.
If you want to attract Finches to your backyard, provide them with tube feeders filled with sunflower seeds, a water source that does not freeze, and a place for them to nest. You can also use these free bird ID charts to help identify many of the birds that visit your backyard.
This guide will help you identify the types of finches spotted in North America according to avibase. The birds in this list are ordered by how frequently they are spotted, from most frequent to least frequent, according to bird watchers’ checklists submitted to ebird.
17 Species of Finches in North America:
1. American Goldfinch
American Goldfinches are popular birds. The males have bright yellow and black coloring in spring. The females are duller brown, as are males in winter.
- Spinus tristis
- Length: 4.3-5.1 in (11-13 cm)
- Weight: 0.4-0.7 oz (11-20 g)
- Wingspan: 7.5-8.7 in (19-22 cm)
American Goldfinches can be found in most of North America and are usually resident all year. However, those that breed in Canada and the Midwest migrate to the southern US States for winter.
You can find American Goldfinch in weedy fields and overgrown areas foraging for sunflower, thistle, and aster plants. They are also common in suburbs, parks, and backyards.
American Goldfinch Song:
Nests of American Goldfinches are usually located in saplings or shrubs. They are made of grass, bark strips, and feathers on which the female lays four to six eggs. It takes ten to twelve days for the eggs to hatch, and while the male feeds the female, she incubates the eggs.
Attract American Goldfinches to your backyard by planting thistles and milkweed. They will visit most bird feeders and prefer sunflower seed and nyjer seed.
Fun Fact: Brown-headed Cowbirds are known for laying eggs in an American Goldfinch nest, but unfortunately, the seed-based diet that the parents feed them is unsuitable for them, and they eventually die.
2. House Finch
House Finch males have a red head and breast, and the rest of their bodies are mainly brown-streaked. Females are brown-streaked all over.
- Haemorhous mexicanus
- Length: 5.1-5.5 in (13-14 cm)
- Weight: 0.6-0.9 oz (16-27 g)
- Wingspan: 7.9-9.8 in (20-25 cm)
Originally only in western US states, House Finches were introduced to eastern US states and have done very well, even pushing out the Purple Finch.
You can find House Finches in parks, farms, forest edges, and backyard feeders in noisy groups that are hard to miss. They feed on seeds, fruit, and buds.
House Finch Song:
House Finch Call:
Nests of House Finches are commonly found in thickets, bushes, natural, hollow cavities, or even in buildings. The female builds them using grass, leaves, twigs, and feathers. There can be two to six eggs at a time that take as much as two weeks to hatch.
Attract House Finches to backyard feeders with black oil sunflower seeds, millet, and milo or nyjer seeds in tube feeders or platform feeders.
Fun Fact: House Finches were brought to Long Island as caged birds. When they were released into the wild, they flourished and spread to the eastern United States.
3. Lesser Goldfinch
Lesser Goldfinches are tiny bright yellow and black songbirds with long pointed wings and short notched tails. Females have olive backs and are more dull yellow underneath.
- Spinus psaltria
- Length: 3.5-4.3 in (9-11 cm)
- Weight: 0.3-0.4 oz (8-11.5 g)
- Wingspan: 5.9-7.9 in (15-20 cm)
Lesser Goldfinches live in the southwestern US states and the West Coast all year, but those that breed in the interior of western US states migrate for winter.
You can find Lesser Goldfinches in large flocks in open habitats, including thickets, weedy fields, forest clearings, parks, and gardens. They forage for seeds, especially sunflower seeds, but also fruits from elderberry, coffeeberry, and buds from cottonwoods, willows, sycamores, and alders.
Lesser Goldfinch call/Song:
Nests of Lesser Goldfinches are built in a tree or a low bush. The female uses twigs, barks, leaves, and rootlets to make the nest for her three to six eggs. She will incubate them for as long as twelve days until they hatch.
Attract Lesser Goldfinches to your backyards with sunflower seeds and nyjer in tube feeders or platform feeders.
Fun Fact: The Lesser Goldfinch is named as such because it’s the smallest Goldfinch.
4. Pine Siskin
Pine Siskins are small brown finches with yellow streaks in the wing and tail. They have a forked tail and pointed wings, with a short pointed bill.
- Spinus Pinus
- Length: 4.3-5.5 in (11-14 cm)
- Weight: 0.4-0.6 oz (12-18 g)
- Wingspan: 7.1-8.7 in (18-22 cm)
Pine Siskins remain all year in the pine forests in the western states and along the Canadian Border. Some also breed in Canada before heading south for winter.
Depending on pine cone crops, they can be found over much of North America. As their name suggests, Pine Siskins predominantly eat seeds from conifers, but they also eat young buds and seeds from grasses and weeds.
Pine Siskin Song:
Nests of Pine Siskins are built ten to fifty feet high above the ground, away from the tree trunk. They are usually made of twigs, barks, and moss and are home to three to five eggs. It takes about thirteen days for the eggs to hatch.
Attract Pine Siskins to your backyards with thistle and nyjer feeders but also black oil sunflower seeds and suet.
Fun Fact: The name “Siskin” comes from the Pine Siskin’s chirp. So, it’s basically a “pine chirper.”
5. Purple Finch
Purple Finches males have reddish-purple heads and breasts with more brown on the back and wings, and they have a paler belly. Females are brown-streaked all over. They look very similar to House Finch but are redder, especially at the top of their back.
- Haemorhous purpureus
- Length: 4.7-6.3 in (12-16 cm)
- Weight: 0.6-1.1 oz (18-32 g)
- Wingspan: 8.7-10.2 in (22-26 cm)
Purple Finches breed in Canada and overwinter in eastern states but can be found all year in the north-east and Pacific coast.
You can find Purple Finch in evergreen forests feeding on seeds but also buds, nectar, and berries.
Purple Finch Song:
Nests of Purple Finches are located high up in trees. They are made of twigs, barks, weeds, and moss. They usually hold three to five eggs that are incubated for thirteen days by the female.
Attract Purple Finches to your backyards with black oil sunflower seeds.
Fun fact: Purple Finches are the state bird of New Hampshire.
6. Common Redpoll
Common Redpolls are small and have red foreheads, and are brown and white streaked over the rest of their bodies. Males also have pink breasts, but females do not. They have small bills for finch and a short notched tail.
- Acanthis flammea
- Length: 4.7-5.5 in (12-14 cm)
- Weight: 0.4-0.7 oz (11-20 g)
- Wingspan: 7.5-8.7 in (19-22 cm)
Common Redpolls breed in artic in Canada and spend the winter in the rest of Canada and northern US states and less frequently in central US states.
In winter, they will sometimes tunnel into the snow to stay warm during the night. They can eat up to 42% of their body mass every day and can store up to 2 grams of seeds in a stretchy park of their esophagus.
You can find Common Redpolls in weedy fields or feeding on catkins in trees, but they will also come to feeders for small seeds such as nyjer seeds or thistle.
Common Redpoll Song:
Nests of Common Redpolls are hidden in rock crevices or in dense, low shrubs. To keep the nests and the eggs warm, they are usually built out of moss, feathers, plant material, and animal hair. The female lays four to seven eggs that she incubates for about eleven days. Even after they hatch, the young still stay in the nest and are cared for by their mothers for two more weeks.
Attract Common Redpolls to your backyard by feeding them nyjer seeds and shelled sunflower seeds.
Fun fact: Common Redpolls can survive temperatures of -65 Fahrenheit without freezing to death. They add around 30% more feathers to stay warm.
7. Evening Grosbeak
Evening Grosbeaks are chunky birds with big bills and a striking yellow and black pattern. Adult males have a bright yellow stripe over their eyes, making them look fierce. Their heads are black, with gray necks, and their chest and belly are yellow. They also have a white patch on their wings.
Females and juvenile males have greenish bills, mostly gray bodies, black and white wings, and a yellow tinge to the neck.
- Hesperiphona vespertina
- Length: 16 to 22 cm (6.3 to 8.7 in)
- Weight: 38.7 to 86.1 g (1.37 to 3.04 oz)
- Wingspan: 30 to 36 cm (12 to 14 in)
Evening Grosbeaks remain all year in southern Canada and down the west coast to northern California. However, when cone crops are poor, they will migrate south to most US states.
You can find Evening Grosbeaks in forests and mountain regions. During the winter, they’re often attracted to bird feeders in backyards, most often because it’s an easy food supply.
Evening Grosbeaks naturally feed on flower buds during spring; insect larvae from treetops during the summer; and in the winter, they flock to backyard feeders or feast on seeds, berries, and small fruit.
Evening Grosbeak Song:
Nests of Evening Grosbeaks are usually found up to 100 feet above ground in pine trees. The nests are loosely made, composed of twigs, rootlets, grass, moss, and pine needles. There are usually up to five eggs laid by the female, and she incubates them for two weeks until they hatch.
Attract Evening Grosbeaks to your backyard during winter with sunflower seeds, berries, and maple buds.
Fun fact: Evening Grosbeaks have such powerful bills that they can crush seeds that are too hard to open for other smaller birds, so these birds hang around to eat whatever is left behind.
8. Red Crossbill
Red Crossbill males are red birds with darker wings and tails. Females are yellow and brown. Their beaks are an unusual twisted shape that crosses when closed. They have notched tails. Juveniles are browner in color.
- Loxia curvirostra
- Length: 5.5-6.5 in (14-17 cm)
- Weight: 1.4 oz (40 g)
- Wingspan: 10-10.75 in (25-27 cm)
Red Crossbills live year-round in northern and western states and winter in eastern states if cone crops are poor.
You can find Red Crossbills mainly in coniferous forests but also along roadsides consuming grit in the mornings. They feed on conifer seeds and forage in flocks from tree to tree, even breaking unopened cones with their powerful beaks.
Red Crossbill Song:
Nests of Red Crossbills are found near the end of a pine tree. They are shallow saucers made of bark, grass, and roots and lined with moss and plants. The female lays three to four eggs that take as long as eighteen days to hatch.
Attract Red Crossbills to your backyards with Safflower, Apple Slices, Suet, Millet, Peanut Kernels, and fruits.
Fun fact: Red Crossbills have different types of beaks and utter different flight calls. Birds with the same type of crossbill flock together and recognize each other’s flight calls.
9. Cassin’s Finch
Cassin’s Finch males have a red crown, rosy pink head, and red-breasted with a whiteish belly and brown back and wings. Females and juveniles are brown-streaked all over.
- Haemorhous cassinii
- Length: 6.3 in (16 cm)
- Weight: 0.8-1.2 oz (24-34 g)
- Wingspan: 9.8-10.6 in (25-27 cm)
Cassin’s Finches live all year in mountain forests in western US states and into southwestern Canada. Some migrate into northern Mexico in winter.
You can find Cassin’s Finches foraging in flocks for seeds in conifer forests. They also eat quaking aspen buds, berries, and other fruit, and some insects such as moths.
Nests of Cassin’s Finches are usually built on pine or similar trees. The nests are cup-like and made of twigs, barks, reeds, and rootlets. A nest can hold four to six eggs which are incubated by the female for about two weeks.
Attract Cassin’s Finches to your backyards with sunflower seed feeders, especially in winter, or fruiting shrubs such as cotoneaster, mulberries, firethorn, grape, and apple.
Fun Fact: The male Cassin’s Finch may confuse you. During its first breeding season, it retains its female-like feather coloring and sings, giving you the impression that females also sing.
10. Pine Grosbeak
Pine Grosbeaks males are red birds with gray on the wings and tail and two white wingbars. Females are gray with dull orange heads and rumps. They are large for finches and relatively slow.
- Pinicola enucleator
- Length: 7.9-9.8 in (20-25 cm)
- Weight: 2.01 oz (57 g)
- Wingspan: 13.0 in (33 cm)
Pine Grosbeaks are mostly found in Canada, but some can be spotted along the US border, the mountainous west, and the Sierra Nevada in California.
You can find Pine Grosbeaks in forests of pine, spruce, and fir, feeding on seeds, fruit, and buds from these trees. They will also eat some insects in the summer.
Pine Grosbeak Call:
Nests of Pine Grosbeaks are commonly found ten to twelve feet above the ground on a low tree. The nests are made of twigs, barks, weeds, moss, and lichen, and hold two to five eggs. The female incubates these eggs for about two weeks until they hatch.
Attract Pine Grosbeaks to your backyards with black oil sunflower seed feeders or suet feeders.
Fun Fact: Pine Grosbeaks are aptly named. Their scientific name, “Pinicola,” is Latin for “pine dweller”.
11. Lawrence’s Goldfinch
Lawrence’s Goldfinches are small, nomadic songbirds. The males are easily recognizable with a black vertical stripe from the front of their heads to their chins. Their body is mostly gray with a yellow breast, belly, wings, and back. Their wings are black with white tips.
Females have similar patterns but are slightly paler gray in color. Juvenile males look like females, but they’re even duller in color.
- Spinus lawrencei
- Length: 3.9-4.7 in (10-12 cm)
- Weight: 0.3-0.5 oz (9-14 g)
- Wingspan: 8.3 in (21 cm)
Lawrence’s Goldfinches breed in California and migrate a short distance east and south.
You can find Lawrence’s Goldfinch in open oak woodlands and shrubby areas, especially if there’s a nearby water source. In the winter, you can find them among weedy fields, brushy areas, and near streams.
Lawrence’s Goldfinch mostly eats seeds. They can even hang upside down from branches to reach them. There are times when they forage for food on the ground, and they will eat insects and buds.
Lawrence’s Goldfinch Song:
Nests of Lawrence’s Goldfinches are made with grass, flower heads, and feathers high up in trees, where they spend most of their time. Expect around six eggs in a nest, with the female in charge of incubation for nearly two weeks. Once they hatch, the female takes care of the young for about two more weeks. Give it another week, and the young are ready to leave the nest.
Fun fact: Lawrence’s Goldfinches migrate from east to west instead of north to south, the opposite of other migratory birds.
12. White-winged Crossbill
White-winged Crossbills are finches with heavy crossed beaks. Males are red birds with black wings and tails and two white wingbars. Females are yellow and brown and with two white wing bars.
- Loxia leucoptera
- Length: 5.9-6.7 in (15-17 cm)
- Weight: 0.8-0.9 oz (24-26 g)
- Wingspan: 10.2-11.0 in (26-28 cm)
White-winged Crossbills live in forests in Canada, Alaska, and sometimes the northern US states when cone crops are poor further north.
You can find White-winged crossbills in spruce forests feeding on seeds.
White-winged Crossbill Song:
Nests of White-winged Crossbills are nestled in horizontal tree branches. They are made of twigs, bark, grass, moss, and lichens. There are as many as five eggs in a nest, with the female incubating them for two weeks until they hatch.
Fun fact: Unusually, these birds breed at any time of year as long as there is enough food. They can often be heard in large flocks.
13. Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches are medium-sized, chunky birds. Adults are identifiable by their black forehead and throat, gray crown, and brown body with pink highlights in their bellies.
In winter, their bill is yellow then turns black during the breeding season. Juveniles are brown with none of the pink highlights.
- Leucosticte tephrocotis
- Length: 5.5-8.3 in (14-21 cm)
- Weight: 0.8-2.1 oz (22-60 g)
- Wingspan: 13.0 in (33 cm)
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch breed in Alaska and western Canada before migrating to western US states in winter.
You can find Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch in alpine snowfields, barren tundra, and on rocky islands in summer. In winter, they descend into open plains, valleys, and towns, especially when there are bird feeders.
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch forage for worms and insects that are frozen in snowfields, glaciers, and meadows during the summer. In the winter, they eat mustard and sunflower seeds and weeds.
Gray-crowned Rosy-finch Call:
Nests of Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch are usually found hidden away in crevices between boulders and cliffs, under a rock, or even in mine shafts and holes in abandoned buildings.
Their nests are made from grass, roots, moss, and sedge and lined with fine grass, animal hair, and feathers. The female usually lays around four eggs which hatch after two weeks, and the young are ready to leave the nest after another two weeks.
Attract Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches to your backyard by feeding them black oil sunflower seeds. You can scatter the seeds on the ground or platform feeders.
Fun Fact: Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches will probably win the award for “Highest Altitude Breeding Bird in North America” since they nest on the slopes of Denali, known for being the continent’s highest peak.
14. Hoary Redpoll
Hoary Redpolls are small and hardy birds. Adults are generally white and have a red patch on their foreheads. Adult males have a pinkish chest while adult females don’t.
Females do have more streaks on their bellies compared to males. Juveniles look entirely different, having no red patch on their forehead and are mostly gray with a lot of streaking on their body.
- Acanthis hornemanni
- Length: 4.7-5.5 in (12-14 cm)
- Weight: 0.4-0.7 oz (11-20 g)
- Wingspan: 8.5-9.25 in (22-23 cm)
Hoary Redpolls breed in the arctic and move short distances south in winter.
You can find Hoary Redpolls in sheltered tundra birch forests and open subarctic evergreen forests in the summer. Winters bring them closer to towns and villages, in open woodland, scrub, and weedy fields. They feed on seeds of alder and birch trees and on insects.
Hoary Redpoll Song:
Nests of Hoary Redpoll are hidden in the hollows of trees, crevices of rocky areas, and within dense shrubs. The nest is made of twigs, grass and rootlets and cushioned with soft grass feathers and animal hair. They lay around five eggs which take around ten days to hatch. The young leave the nest in about two weeks.
Fun Fact: If the temperature in their environment becomes too warm, Hoary Redpoll may pluck out some of its body feathers. Don’t worry, they grow back.
15. Black Rosy-Finch
Black Rosy-Finch are medium-sized birds recognizable because of their grayish-white crown against a black head. The rest of their body is brownish-black with pink streaks on their belly. Breeding adults are darker black all-over, which makes the pink streaks on the wings and belly stand out. Juveniles are more brown in color.
- Leucosticte atrata
- Length: 5.5-6.3 in (14-16 cm)
- Weight: 0.8-1.1 oz (22-32 g)
- Wingspan: 13.0 in (33 cm)
You can find Black Rosy-Finch among alpine tundra and meadows. They prefer rocky summits and snowfields but may move to lowlands and open country during the winter. Their breeding ground can be found in mountain peaks, rock piles, and cliffs.
In the summer, Black Rosy-Finch eat insects and worms, and they also eat seeds, leaves, and young plants. In winter they eat mainly seeds.
Black Rosy-Finch Call/Song:
Nests of Black Rosy-Finch are in inaccessible places, like cliffside crevices and niches between boulders. The female builds the nest out of grass, moss, animal hair, and feathers. She will lay around four eggs, and they hatch in two weeks. The young leave the nest after another three weeks.
Fun Fact: Black Rosy-Finches use a unique pouch at the bottom of their mouth to store extra food for their young.
16. Brown-capped Rosy-Finch
Credit: Dominic Sherony
Brown-capped Rosy-Finches are reddish-pink on the belly and wings that is brighter during the breeding season. They are brown with hints of pink on the rest of their body and brown capped. Juveniles and non-breeding adults are mostly brown.
- Leucosticte australis
- Length: 5.5-6.3 in (14-16 cm)
- Weight: 0.8-1.2 oz (23-33 g)
- Wingspan: 13.0 in (33 cm)
Brown-capped Rosy-Finch live in Colorado and New Mexico in the mountains feeding on seeds, insects, and spiders and do not migrate.
Brown-capped Rosy-Finch Call:
Nests of Brown-capped Rosy-Finches are found in high elevations like cliff ridges, rock crevices, and caves. The females create a nest made out of moss, grass, and weeds, lined with fur and feather. They can lay as many as five eggs and incubate them for two weeks.
Attract Brown-capped Rosy-Finches to your backyard feeders with sunflower seeds or Nyjer seeds.
Fun fact: Around 2,000 Brown-capped Rosy-Finches consider Rocky Mountain National Park their breeding ground and natural habitat so this a great place to spot them.
17. Cassia Crossbill
Male Cassia Crossbills are medium-sized finches with red-orange bodies, a large, dark bill, and gray-brown wings. Females have a more grayish-green body and yellow bellies. Juveniles are like females but with clear streaks across their bodies.
- Loxia sinesciuris
- Length: 7.09-7.87 in (18–20 cm)
- Weight: 1.0-1.6 oz (28-44 g)
- Wingspan: 3.35-3.93 in (8.5–10 cm)
You can find Cassia Crossbill year-round in the lodgepole pine forests of southern Idaho. They never leave this area because there are no red squirrels here to compete against them for the cones.
Cassia Crossbills primarily feed on lodgepole pine seeds. Their large bills are perfect for cracking the hard shells. They hang from the cones and branches to get at the seeds, or they forage through the fallen cones on the ground. They may also eat insects and caterpillars.
Cassia Crossbill Call:
Nests of Cassia Crossbill are found on branches about 20 meters off the ground. They are cup-shaped nests made of twigs, moss, grass and pine needles. Females will lay around six eggs that will hatch after about two weeks.
Fun Fact: The species name of this crossbill, sinesciurus, means “without squirrels.”
Most Common Finches in North America
This list shows the frequency that finches are recorded on ebird checklists by birdwatchers. It does not show their population size but does also include introduced and accidental species.
- American Goldfinch 24.51%
- House Finch 24.22%
- Lesser Goldfinch 5.12%
- Pine Siskin 3.98%
- Purple Finch 2.82%
- Common Redpoll 0.57%
- Evening Grosbeak 0.57%
- Red Crossbill 0.56%
- Cassin’s Finch 0.54%
- Pine Grosbeak 0.17%
- Lawrence’s Goldfinch 0.15%
- White-winged Crossbill 0.12%
- Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch 0.08%
- Saffron Finch 0.05% – Introduced Species
- Yellow-fronted Canary 0.04% – Introduced Species
- Hoary Redpoll 0.04%
- Black Rosy-Finch 0.02%
- Brown-capped Rosy-Finch 0.02%
- Brambling 0.01% – Accidental Species
- Cassia Crossbill >0.01% – Accidental Species
- Hawfinch >0.01% – Accidental Species
- Common Rosefinch >0.01% – Accidental Species
- Common Chaffinch >0.01% – Accidental Species
- Eurasian Bullfinch >0.01% – Accidental Species
- Oriental Greenfinch >0.01% – Accidental Species
- Pallas’s Rosefinch >0.01% – Accidental Species
- Asian Rosy-Finch >0.01% – Accidental Species