35 Brown Birds In West Virginia (ID Guide, Pictures)

Brown birds or LBJ (little brown jobs) can be hard to identify as they do not always have as many distinguishing features as their brighter-colored cousins.

But fear not, as this guide will help you identify a sparrow, a wren, or any other brown bird you are likely to spot. Also, find out which brown birds are in West Virginia at different times of the year.

This guide will help you identify those brown birds visiting your backyard or out in the woods and fields and are listed from most to least common according to checklists submitted by bird watchers on ebird for West Virginia.

Brown Birds In West Virginia By Season

Brown Birds in West Virginia all year: Northern Cardinal, American Robin, Song Sparrow, Mourning Dove, Carolina Wren, American Goldfinch, House Sparrow, House Finch, Northern Flicker, Purple Finch, Hermit Thrush, Swamp Sparrow, Winter Wren

Brown Birds in West Virginia in summer: Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Eastern Phoebe, Cedar Waxwing, Field Sparrow, Wood Thrush, Brown-headed Cowbird, Brown Thrasher, Common Yellowthroat, House Wren, Great Crested Flycatcher, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Louisiana Waterthrush, Savannah Sparrow, Northern Waterthrush

Brown Birds in West Virginia in winter: White-throated Sparrow, Brown Creeper, White-crowned Sparrow, Pine Siskin, American Tree Sparrow

Brown Birds during migration in West Virginia: Swainson’s Thrush, Marsh Wren

Rare or accidental species in West Virginia: Bewick’s Wren, Spotted Towhee, Canyon Towhee

35 Brown Birds In West Virginia

1. Northern Cardinal – Female

Northern cardinal male and female for identification

Northern Cardinals are frequently spotted in West Virginia and are residents of the state all year. They are recorded in 52% of summer and winter checklists submitted by the bird watchers for the state.

Females Northern Cardinals are a little showy with their brown coloring, sharp brown crest, red highlights, and red beaks.

However, the bright red male Northern Cardinal with black around their faces is an incredible sight, especially against a white winter background. They also have red crests and beaks.

  • Cardinalis cardinalis
  • Length: 8.3-9.1 in (21-23 cm)
  • Weight: 1.5-1.7 oz (42-48 g)
  • Wingspan: 9.8-12.2 in (25-31 cm)

Northern Cardinals live in the eastern half of the US, and some states in the south as far west as Arizona.

You can find Northern Cardinals in dense vegetation foraging for seeds, fruit, and insects. Northern Cardinals sometimes attack their own reflection during the breeding season as they obsessively defend their territories.

Attract Northern Cardinals to your backyard with feeders full of sunflower seeds, peanut hearts, millet, and milo. They will feed from large tube feeders, hoppers, platform feeders, or food scattered on the ground.

2. American Robin

American Robin for identification

American Robins can be found all year in West Virginia, but they are spotted more often from March to August. They appear in 63% of summer checklists and 19% of winter checklists for the state.

American Robins are a common sight on lawns eating earthworms. They have black heads and backs with red or orange breasts. They tend to roost in trees in winter, so you are more likely to see them in your backyard from spring.

  • Turdus migratorius
  • Length: 7.9-11.0 in (20-28 cm)
  • Weight: 2.7-3.0 oz (77-85 g)
  • Wingspan: 12.2-15.8 in (31-40 cm)

American Robins are residents in the lower 48 and the coast of western Canada and Alaska. Those that breed in Canada and inland Alaska move south for the winter.

American Robins can be found in many habitats, from woodlands, forests, and mountains to fields, parks, and lawns. They eat earthworms, insects, snails, and fruit.

Attract American Robins to your backyard with sunflower seeds, suet and peanut hearts, fruit, and mealworms. Platform feeders are best or food scattered on the ground. Also, try planting some native plants that produce berries, such as juniper, sumac, hawthorn, and dogwood.

3. Song Sparrow

Song sparrow for identification

Song Sparrows can be spotted all year in West Virginia, and they appear in 46% of summer checklists and 39% of winter checklists.

Song sparrows are not as remarkable looking as other backyard birds, but these predominantly brown-streaked birds use their almost constant song to attract mates in spring and summer.

  • Melospiza melodia
  • Length: 4.7-6.7 in (12-17 cm)
  • Weight: 0.4-1.9 oz (12-53 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.1-9.4 in (18-24 cm)

Song Sparrows live all year in the northern US states. Those that breed in Canada migrate to southern US states for winter.

They can be found in open, shrubby, and wet areas, often perched on a low shrub singing, and are often found at backyard feeders.

Song Sparrows eat a wide variety of insects and plants, including beetles, caterpillars, midges, spiders, and earthworms. They will also eat buckwheat, sunflower, raspberries, wild cherries, blackberries, wheat, and rice.

Attract Song Sparrows to your backyard feeders by putting black oil sunflower seeds, cracked corn, and nyjer on platform feeders.

A surprising number of sparrows in West Virginia can be spotted, and you can learn their songs and find out fun facts to help you identify them more easily.

4. Mourning Dove

Mourning Dove

Mourning Doves are very common and can be spotted all year in West Virginia. They occur in 43% of summer checklists and 33% of winter checklists for the state.

Mourning Doves are graceful small-headed birds with plump bodies and long tails. They are a soft brown color with black spots on the wings. Males are slightly heavier than females.

  • Zenaida macroura
  • Length: 9.1-13.4 in (23-34 cm)
  • Weight: 3.0 -6.0 oz (96-170 g)
  • Wingspan: 17.7 in (45 cm)

Mourning Doves are common over all of the lower 48 all year but may migrate after breeding from the north of the Midwest and southern Canada.

Mourning Doves can be seen perching on telephone wires and foraging for seeds on the ground in grasslands, fields, and backyards. They can also be found in open areas or woodland edges.

Attract Mourning Doves to your backyard by scattering millet on the ground or platform feeders. They will also eat black sunflower seeds, nyjer, cracked corn, and peanut hearts.

5. Carolina Wren

Carolina Wren

Carolina Wrens do not migrate and can be spotted in West Virginia all year. They appear in over 30% of checklists submitted by bird watchers for the state.

Carolina Wrens are shy birds that are dark brown on top and light brown underneath. They have a white eyebrow stripe, upright tail, and a loud ‘teakettle‘ song.

  • Thryothorus ludovicianus
  • Length: 4.7-5.5 in (12-14 cm)
  • Weight: 0.6-0.8 oz (18-22 g)
  • Wingspan: 11.4 in (29 cm)

Carolina Wrens are residents all year across eastern and southeastern US States. You can find them in woods or thickly vegetated areas, and they will visit backyard feeders.

Attract Carolina Wrens to your backyard feeders with suet feeders, hulled sunflower seeds, or peanut hearts in large tube feeders or on platform feeders.

Some Wrens in West Virginia are pretty common in backyards, but to spot others, you will need to head out to marshy areas.

6. American Goldfinch – Female

American Goldfinch for identification

American Goldfinches can be spotted in West Virginia all year, but their numbers increase during the breeding season. They are recorded in 43% of summer checklists and 29% of winter checklists.

American Goldfinches are popular birds with the males’ bright yellow and black coloring in spring. The females are duller brown, as are males in winter.

  • Spinus tristis
  • Length: 4.3-5.1 in (11-13 cm)
  • Weight: 0.4-0.7 oz (11-20 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.5-8.7 in (19-22 cm)

American Goldfinches can be found in most of North America and are usually resident all year. However, those that breed in Canada and the Midwest migrate to southern US States for winter.

They can be found in weedy fields and overgrown areas foraging for sunflower, thistle, and aster plants. They are also common in suburbs, parks, and backyards.

Attract American Goldfinches to your backyard by planting thistles and milkweed. They will visit most bird feeders and prefer sunflower seed and nyjer seed. 

7. Eastern Towhee

Eastern Towhee

Eastern Towhees can be seen in West Virginia all year, but their number increase during the breeding season from April to July. They appear in 44% of summer checklists and 7% of winter checklists.

Eastern Towhees are striking large sparrows, about the size of Robin, with a black head, throat, and back, reddish sides, long tails, and a white belly in the males. Females are similar but brown instead of black.

  • Pipilo erythrophthalmus
  • Length: 6.8-8.2 in (17.3-20.8 cm)
  • Weight: 1.1-1.8 oz (32-52 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.9-11.0 in (20-28 cm)

Eastern Towhees live all year in southeastern US States, but birds further north move south for the winter.

You can find Eastern Towhees rummaging in the undergrowth and along the edges of forests and thickets.

Nests of Eastern Towhees are usually on the ground, hidden in fallen leaves. They are made from twigs, bark, and leaves, lined with soft grass and animal hair. They lay up to six eggs, which take just under two weeks to hatch and the same for young to fledge.

Attract Eastern Towhees to your backyard with overgrown borders and platform feeders with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, cracked corn, and millet.

8. House Sparrow

House sparrow for identification

House Sparrows are an introduced species in West Virginia that can be spotted here all year. They do not migrate and occur in 20% of summer checklists and 22% of winter checklists.

House Sparrows are another introduced species that have done very well and are now one of the most common birds. They have gray and brown heads and white cheeks. Their backs are black and brown, and their bellies are gray.

  • Passer domesticus
  • Length: 5.9-6.7 in (15-17 cm)
  • Weight: 0.9-1.1 oz (27-30 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.5-9.8 in (19-25 cm)

House Sparrows live in the US and southern Canada all year. You can find them near houses and buildings, and they can be pretty tame, and they may even eat out of your hand.

House Sparrows eat mostly grain and seed as well as discarded food. They can be considered a pest because they are non-native, but they are found in backyards even if you do not feed them.

Attract House Sparrows to your backyard feeders with most kinds of birdseed, including millet, corn, and sunflower seeds.

9. House Finch – Female

House Finches are residents in West Virginia all year. They do not migrate and appear in 17% of summer checklists and 24% of winter checklists.

Females House Finches are brown-streaked all over, but Male House Finches have a red head and breast, and the rest of their bodies are mainly brown-streaked. 

  • Haemorhous mexicanus
  • Length: 5.1-5.5 in (13-14 cm)
  • Weight: 0.6-0.9 oz (16-27 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.9-9.8 in (20-25 cm)

Originally only in western US states, House Finches were introduced to eastern US states and have done very well, even pushing out the Purple Finch.

They can be found in parks, farms, forest edges, and backyard feeders in noisy groups that are hard to miss.

Attract House Finches to backyard feeders with black oil sunflower seeds or nyjer seeds in tube feeders or platform feeders.

Not all finches in West Virginia are brown, some may be more brightly colored.

10. Northern Flicker

Northern Flicker

Northern Flickers are spotted in West Virginia all year. They appear in 19% of summer checklists and 12% of winter checklists.

Northern Flickers are large brown woodpeckers with black spots and a white patch on their rump in flight, plus a red nape of the neck in the males. 

Northern Flickers have red or yellow flashes in the wings and tail depending on where they originate. Red-shafted birds live in the west, and yellow-shafted birds live in the east.

  • Colaptes auratus
  • Length: 11.0-12.2 in (28-31 cm)
  • Weight: 3.9-5.6 oz (110-160 g)
  • Wingspan: 16.5-20.1 in (42-51 cm)

Northern Flickers can be spotted across the US all year and in Canada during summer. Those that breed in Canada migrate south for the winter.

Northern Flickers mainly eat ants, beetles, fruits, and seeds, and they can often be seen on the ground digging with their curved bill.

Attract Northern Flickers to your backyard with suet. You can also find other species of woodpeckers in West Virginia that will visit your feeders.

11. Chipping Sparrow

chipping sparrow

Chipping Sparrows can be spotted in West Virginia during the breeding season and appear in 32% of summer checklists. They are mainly spotted from April to October, but some stay all year.

Chipping Sparrows are slender, long-tailed birds with a grayish belly and brown and black-streaked back. They have a rusty crown and black eye line. In winter, their colors are more subdued.

  • Spizella passerina
  • Length: 4.7-5.9 in (12-15 cm)
  • Weight: 0.4-0.6 oz (11-16 g)
  • Wingspan: 8.3 in (21 cm)

Chipping Sparrows spend their summer breeding in the US and Canada before flying to Mexico and Florida for winter. Some remain all year in southern states.

You can find Chipping Sparrows in small flocks on open ground and will come to backyards for many kinds of birdseed.

Attract Chipping Sparrows to your backyard with seeds or cracked corn on open feeders such as hoppers or platforms.

12. Eastern Phoebe

eastern phoebe

Eastern Phoebes are more frequently spotted in West Virginia during the breeding season, but some stay all year in the state. They appear in 24% of summer checklists and 1% of winter checklists.

Eastern Phoebes are plump songbirds that are grayish-brown on the back, whitish underneath, and with a darker head.

  • Sayornis phoebe
  • Length: 5.5-6.7 in (14-17 cm)
  • Weight: 0.6-0.7 oz (16-21 g)
  • Wingspan: 10.2-11.0 in (26-28 cm)

Eastern Phoebes are migratory birds, breeding across northeastern and central US states and into Canada before migrating to southeastern US states and Mexico for winter. Some birds may remain all year towards the south of their range. 

Eastern Phoebes tend to be found alone in quiet woodland, wagging their tails from low perches rather than in pairs or flocks. 

As they are flycatchers, flying insects make up most of their diet, but they will also eat spiders and other insects, small fruit, and seeds. They often nest on bridges, barns, or houses, making a nest out of mud and grass.

Attract Eastern Phoebes to your backyard by putting up a nest box or native plants that produce berries.

13. White-throated Sparrow

White throated sparrow

White-throated Sparrows are winter birds in West Virginia and are mainly spotted from October until May. They are recorded in 25% of winter checklists.

White-throated Sparrows have a distinctive black and white striped head, bright white throat, and yellow between the eye and bill. Their backs are brown, and underneath is gray.

  • Zonotrichia albicollis
  • Length: 6.3-7.1 in (16-18 cm)
  • Weight: 0.8-1.1 oz (22-32 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.9-9.1 in (20-23 cm)

White-throated Sparrows are migratory birds, breeding mainly in Canada before heading south in winter to eastern and southern US states and the Pacific Coast.

You can find White-throated Sparrows on the ground in forests and woods and along the edges of wooded areas, often in large flocks.

White-throated Sparrows’ diet is mainly seeds of grasses and weeds and fruits such as grape, sumac, mountain ash, blueberry, blackberry, and dogwood. They will also eat many insects from the forest floor, especially in summer.

Attract White-throated Sparrows to your backyard with millet and black oil sunflower seeds on platform feeders.

14. Cedar Waxwing

cedar waxwing

Cedar Waxwings can be spotted in West Virginia all year but are more common during the breeding season. They appear in 22% of summer checklists and 2% of winter checklists for the state.

Cedar Waxwings are elegant social birds that are pale brown on the head, chest, and crest, which fades to gray on the back, wings, and tail.

Their belly is pale yellow and bright yellow towards the tail. They have a narrow black mask over their eyes and bright red on the wingtips.

  • Bombycilla cedrorum
  • Length: 5.5-6.7 in (14-17 cm)
  • Weight: 1.1 oz (32 g)
  • Wingspan: 8.7-11.8 in (22-30 cm)

Cedar Waxwings remain all year in the northern half of the US. Those that breed in Canada migrate to the southern half of the US for winter.

They make a high-pitched call and can be found in berry bushes, woodlands, and streams.

Attract Cedar Waxwings to your backyard by planting native trees and shrubs with small fruit such as serviceberry, dogwood, juniper, winterberry, and hawthorn. You can also try fruit on platform feeders.

15. Field Sparrow

Field Sparrow

Field Sparrows spend the breeding season in West Virginia and appear in 20% of summer checklists. They are most common here from March to August, but you can spot some all year.

Field Sparrows are small, slender brown-backed birds streaked with black. Their undersides are gray, as are their heads, and they have a reddish crown and pink bill.

  • Spizella pusilla
  • Length: 4.7-5.9 in (12-15 cm)
  • Weight: 0.4-0.5 oz (11-15 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.9 in (20 cm)

Field Sparrows remain all year in eastern US states, but those that breed in the Midwest head south for winter.

You can easily find Field Sparrows in the breeding season as the males will sing from a perch in the early mornings, so they are easier to spot. Otherwise, they quietly feed on weeds and seeds and can be easily missed as they prefer abandoned fields and are shy.

Nests of Field Sparrows are built on the ground for the first brood and then higher and higher as the breeding season goes on. Their nests are made from grass, and they lay up to five eggs which take around two weeks to hatch. After that, the young only take around a week to fledge.

Attract Field Sparrows to your backyard with cracked corn, hulled sunflower seeds, and millet.

16. Wood Thrush

Wood Thrushes are frequently spotted in West Virginia during the breeding season from April to October and are recorded in 29% of checklists at this time.

Wood Thrushes’ plump white and black-spotted bellies give them a slightly comical appearance. They are brown on the back and have reddish colors on the crown and upper back.

  • Hylocichla mustelina
  • Length: 7.5-8.3 in (19-21 cm)
  • Weight: 1.4-1.8 oz (40-50 g)
  • Wingspan: 11.8-13.4 in (30-34 cm)

Wood Thrushes migrate from eastern US states across the Gulf of Mexico into Central America in one night.

These birds stay hidden, foraging in leaf litter for insects, such as beetles and flies, in mature forests. In spring, they can be heard making a ‘flute-like’ song.

17. Brown-headed Cowbird – Female

brown headed cowbird

Brown-headed Cowbirds are mainly spotted during summer, from March to July, but a few stay in West Virginia all year. They appear in 19% of summer checklists and 1% of winter checklists.

Female Brown-headed Cowbirds are brown all over with slight streaking. Male Brown-headed Cowbirds are larger than females, with black bodies, brown heads, and short tails. 

  • Molothrus ater
  • Length: 76.3-8.7 in (19-22 cm)
  • Weight: 1.3-1.8 oz (42-50 g)
  • Wingspan: 14.2 in (36 cm)

Brown-headed Cowbirds remain all year in eastern US states, southern US states, and along the Pacific Coast. However, those that breed in northern and western US states and Canada migrate south for winter.

They are often considered a nuisance because they are parasite birds that destroy the eggs of smaller songbirds so they can lay their eggs in the nest and have the bird foster their chicks.

18. Brown Thrasher

Brown Thrashers are commonly spotted in West Virginia during the breeding season but some are here all year. They are recorded in 19% of summer checklists.

Brown Thrashers are large songbirds with long proportions. They are about the same size as a robin. They are brown on the back and with white-streaked chests and bellies. Their faces are gray with bright yellow eyes.

  • Toxostoma rufum
  • Length: 9.1-11.8 in (23-30 cm)
  • Weight: 2.1-3.1 oz (61-89 g)
  • Wingspan: 11.4-12.6 in (29-32 cm)

Brown Thrashers live in central and eastern North America. Those birds in the southeast of their range remain all year, but birds further north migrate south for the winter.

Brown Thrashers are hard to spot for their size as they spend most of their time in thickets and shrubbery. However, they can be heard rummaging along the ground in the leaf litter and soil, looking for insects, but they also eat berries, beetles, and flying insects from the air.

Over 1000 different song types are sung by these most accomplished songbirds, which is one of the largest of any North American songbird.

Attract Brown Thrashers to your backyard with dense cover and berry shrubs, and they will collect fallen seeds from under feeders.

19. Common Yellowthroat

common yellowthroat

Common Yellowthroats are frequently spotted in West Virginia during the breeding season. They appear in 22% of summer checklists for the state.

Common Yellowthroats are small songbirds that are brownish on the back and bright yellow underneath, with long tails. The males have black masks across their faces. The brightness of the yellow can vary geographically, and they may be more olive in parts underneath.

  • Geothlypis trichas
  • Length: 4.3-5.1 in (11-13 cm)
  • Weight: 0.3-0.3 oz (9-10 g)
  • Wingspan: 5.9-7.5 in (15-19 cm)

Common Yellowthroats spend the summer breeding over most of North America, except Alaska and northern Canada. Some remain all year along the Gulf Coast and Pacific Southwest. Then, they migrate south for winter.

You can find Common Yellowthroats often in marshy or wetland areas and brushy fields living in thick, tangled vegetation. 

Attract Common Yellowthroats to large backyards with dense vegetation and native plants to attract insects.

Common Yellowthroats are a type of warbler that can be spotted in West Virginia, but there are so many more. They have mesmerizing songs that you can listen to and learn.

20. House Wren

house wren

House Wrens are frequently spotted during the breeding season in West Virginia, and they are recorded in 17% of summer checklists. While a few can be spotted here all year, April until October are the best months to spot them.

House Wrens are small nondescript brown birds with darker barred wings and tails and a paler throat. They often have their tails standing up.

  • Troglodytes aedon
  • Length: 4.3-5.1 in (11-13 cm)
  • Weight: 0.3-0.4 oz (10-12 g)
  • Wingspan: 5.9 in (15 cm)

House Wrens spend their summer breeding in the US and southern Canada before migrating to southern US states and Mexico for winter.

You can find House Wrens in backyards, parks and open woods foraging for insects and spiders. They can often be found energetically hopping through tangles and low branches with their tails up, stopping to sing their cheerful song.

House Wrens are fierce for their size when it comes to getting the best nest holes. They will often harass larger birds, sometimes dragging eggs or nestlings out of a nest site they want. 

Attract House Wrens to your backyard by leaving piles of brush or putting up a nest box.

21. Great-crested Flycatcher

Great_Crested_Flycatcher

Great Crested Flycatchers spend the breeding season in West Virginia from April to mid-October. They are recorded in 13% of summer checklists.

Great Crested Flycatchers are brown on the back with a yellow belly and gray throat. They have reddish flashes in the wing and tail feathers. The crest is not very obvious.

  • Myiarchus crinitus
  • Length: 6.7-8.3 in (17-21 cm)
  • Weight: 0.9-1.4 oz (27-40 g)
  • Wingspan: 13.4 in (34 cm)

Great Crested Flycatchers breed over much of eastern North America and spend the winter in southern Florida, southern Mexico, and Central America.

They sit perched up high in woodland, waiting for large insects flying, such as butterflies, grasshoppers, moths, wasps, and spiders. They can be found in mixed woodlands and at the edges of clearings, parks, and tree-lined neighborhoods or perched on fenceposts or other artificial structures. They will also eat berries and small fruit.

Attract Great Crested Flycatchers to your backyard by planting native species of plants and leaving brush piles to attract insects. Also, plant berry-producing plants and put up a nest box as they readily take up residence in them.

22. Rose-breasted Grosbeak – Female

Rose-breasted Grosbeaks are spotted during the breeding season in West Virginia and occur in 8% of summer checklists. They are spotted from April to October.

Female Rose-breasted Grosbeaks and immature males are brown with lots of streaking and a flash of yellow under the wings.

Rose-breasted Grosbeaks males are black-and-white birds with black heads and backs, white bellies, and red breasts. They also have a flash of red under their wings.

  • Pheucticus ludovicianus
  • Length: 7.1-8.3 in (18-21 cm)
  • Weight: 1.4-1.7 oz (39-49 g)
  • Wingspan: 11.4-13.0 in (29-33 cm)

Rose-breasted Grosbeaks breed in northeastern US states, the Midwest, and southern and central Canada. They can be seen during migration in southeastern US states. Winter is spent in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.

You can find Rose-breasted Grosbeaks in forests, parks, and backyards foraging for insects, berries, and seeds.

Nests of Rose-breasted Grosbeaks are placed in the branches of a low tree. They are made of loosely-formed twigs, grass, and plants. There are about five eggs that take two weeks to hatch. After that, both parents take turns incubating the eggs.

Attract Rose-breasted Grosbeaks to your backyard with sunflower seeds and peanuts.

23. Louisiana Waterthrush

Louisiana Waterthrush

Credit: Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren

Louisiana Waterthrushes appear in 7% of summer checklists. They are mainly spotted in West Virginia from March to September.

Louisiana Waterthrushes are drab in comparison to other warblers. They are brown on top and pale below. They have a white eyebrow stripe and long pink legs.

  • Parkesia motacilla
  • Length: 5.9-6.1 in (15-15.5 cm)
  • Weight: 0.6-0.8 oz (18.2-22.9 g)
  • Wingspan: 9.4-10.6 in (24-27 cm)

Louisiana Waterthrush breed in eastern US states and can be seen in the southeast during migration. They spend the winter in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, arriving back in spring early in the year.

You can find Louisiana Waterthrush along streams and moving water in woodlands hunting for insects, vertebrates, and larvae.

Nests of Louisiana Waterthrush are along the bank of a stream and hidden in roots or under logs. The nest is made from leaves, pine needles, and other plant material and is held together with mud.

24. Purple Finch – Female

Purple Finch
Purple Finch female

Purple Finches can be spotted in West Virginia all year, but their numbers increase during migration in April and October.

Female Purple Finches are brown-streaked all over, but males have reddish-purple heads and breasts with more brown on the back and wings and have a paler belly. They look very similar to House Finch but are redder, especially at the top of their back. 

  • Haemorhous purpureus
  • Length: 4.7-6.3 in (12-16 cm)
  • Weight: 0.6-1.1 oz (18-32 g)
  • Wingspan: 8.7-10.2 in (22-26 cm)

Purple Finches breed in Canada and overwinter in eastern US states but can be found all year in the north-east and Pacific coast.

You can find Purple Finch in evergreen forests feeding on seeds but also buds, nectar, and berries.

Nests of Purple Finches are located high up in trees. They are made of twigs, barks, weeds, and moss. They usually hold three to five eggs that are incubated for thirteen days by the female.

Attract Purple Finches to your backyard with black oil sunflower seeds.

25. Brown Creeper

Brown Creepers are mainly spotted in West Virginia during winter, but they are also spotted in the east of the state all year. and They are recorded in 1% of summer checklists and 4% of winter checklists.

Brown Creepers are tiny songbirds that are hard to spot against tree trunks, with their streaked brown backs and white undersides.

  • Certhia americana
  • Length: 4.7-5.5 in (12-14 cm)
  • Weight: 0.2-0.3 oz (5-10 g)
  • Wingspan: 6.7-7.9 in (17-20 cm)

Brown Creepers do not migrate, but they can move south and from higher elevations in winter. They can be found in Alaska, southern Canada, northeastern and eastern US states, and down to Mexico and Central America. They also move into central and southeastern states in some winters.

To spot one of these tiny birds, look closely at tree trunks of mature woodland with large trees where you may find them hunting for insects and larvae hidden in the bark.

Brown Creepers are usually found working their way up the tree and so face upwards, unlike nuthatches which face down the tree trunk.

Rather than singing, these songbirds make a high-piercing call that helps locate them.

26. Hermit Thrush

Hermit Thrushes are spotted in West Virginia all year, especially during winter. They appear in 4% of summer checklists and 1% of winter checklists.

Hermit Thrushes are birds that stand to attention with an upright manner, chunky bodies, and long tails. They are brown on the back and white underneath, with spots on the throat and breast.

  • Catharus guttatus
  • Length: 5.5-7.1 in (14-18 cm)
  • Weight: 0.8-1.3 oz (23-37 g)
  • Wingspan: 9.8-11.4 in (25-29 cm)

Hermit Thrushes breed in Canada, northeast US states, and the western US. They can be seen during migration in central states before spending winter along the Pacific Coast, southeast states, and Mexico.

Hermit Thrushes forage on the ground in forest clearings in the leaf litter, looking for insects. In winter, they also eat berries.

They rarely visit backyards, but their somewhat forlorn song can be heard in spring and summer.

27. Swamp Sparrow

Swamp Sparrows can be spotted in West Virginia all year, but they are most common in the fall migration in October. They are recorded in up to 10% of checklists during this time.

Swamp Sparrows are dark brown on the back with rusty crowns and wings. They have gray breasts and white throats. Their heads are gray, with brown faces with a dark eye line and a yellow end to their beak.

  • Melospiza georgiana
  • Length: 4.7-5.9 in (12-15 cm)
  • Weight: 0.5-0.8 oz (15-23 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.1-7.5 in (18-19 cm)

Swamp Sparrows are located more in the east. They breed in Canada, northeastern US states, and North Central US states before migrating to eastern and southern US states and Mexico.

As the name would suggest, Swamp Sparrows are found in wetlands, swamps, bogs, and coastal marshes. They feed on seeds and fruit, especially in winter, and more insects in spring.

Nests of Swamp Sparrows are usually hidden in vegetation on or close to the ground and made from twigs, leaves, and cattails. The nest is lined with grass and other plant material.

Swamp Sparrows do not visit backyards except in migration to yards with lots of vegetation and water.

28. White-crowned Sparrow

white-crowned sparrow

White-crowned Sparrows spend winter in West Virginia. However, they are also seen here during the spring and fall migration in May and October. They are spotted in around 3% of checklists in winter and up to 7% during migration.

White-crowned Sparrows are large grayish sparrows with long tails, small bills, and bold black and white stripes on their heads.

  • Zonotrichia leucophrys
  • Length: 5.9-6.3 in (15-16 cm)
  • Weight: 0.9-1.0 oz (25-28 g)
  • Wingspan: 8.3-9.4 in (21-24 cm)

White-crowned Sparrows breed in Alaska and arctic Canada before heading south to the lower 48 and Mexico for winter. However, some may remain along the Pacific Coast and the mountainous west all year.

You can find White-crowned Sparrows in weedy fields, along roadsides, forest edges,  and in yards foraging for seeds of weeds and grasses or fruit such as elderberries and blackberries.

Nests of White-crowned Sparrows are made from twigs, grass, moss, and pine needles, often low to the ground in shrubs or on the ground in the tundra. They lay up to seven eggs, which take up to two weeks to hatch and around nine days for the chicks to fledge.

Attract White-crowned Sparrows to your backyard with sunflower seeds, and they will also eat seeds dropped by other birds at the feeders.

Fun fact: Young White-crowned Sparrows take a further week or two to learn to fly after leaving the nest.

29. Winter Wren

Winter Wrens can be spotted in West Virginia all year and appear in 2% of summer checklists and 3% of winter checklists.

Winter Wrens are small, plump brown birds with darker barring on the wings, tail, and belly. They have a paler eyebrow stripe and short tails, which they keep upright. Males and females look the same.

Winter Wrens look very similar to Pacific Wrens, and there were once thought to be the same species, but now they are classed as different, and they sing different songs.

  • Troglodytes hiemalis
  • Length: 3.1-4.7 in (8-12 cm)
  • Weight: 0.3-0.4 oz (8-12 g)
  • Wingspan: 4.7-6.3 in (12-16 cm)

Winter Wrens are found in eastern US states in winter and northeastern US states, and Canada in summer.

Look for Winter Wrens hidden in tangled undergrowth in forests and backyards. They eat insects and spiders by rummaging through fallen leaves and decaying bark.

Nests of Winter Wrens are made of twigs, moss, and grass woven together into a round shape with a small opening. They lay 1 – 9 eggs, and hatching takes around two or two and a half weeks and fledging the same.

Attract Winter Wrens to your backyard with native plants and dense vegetation.

30. Pine Siskin

pine siskin

Pine Siskins are mainly seen during winter in West Virginia, from October to May, and they are recorded in 2% of checklists at this time.

Pine Siskins are small brown finches with yellow streaks on the wing and tail. They have a forked tail and pointed wings, with a short pointed bill.

  • Spinus Pinus
  • Length: 4.3-5.5 in (11-14 cm)
  • Weight: 0.4-0.6 oz (12-18 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.1-8.7 in (18-22 cm)

Pine Siskins remain all year in the pine forests in the western states and along the Canadian Border. Some also breed in Canada before heading south for winter.

Depending on pine cone crops, they can be found over much of North America. As their name suggests, Pine Siskins predominantly eat seeds from conifers, but they also eat young buds and seeds from grasses and weeds.

Attract Pine Siskins to your backyards with thistle and nyjer feeders and will also come for black oil sunflower seeds and suet.

31. Swainson’s Thrush

swainsons thrush

Swainson’s Thrushes are usually spotted in West Virginia from mid-April to June and September to October. They are recorded in 6% of checklists during spring and 13% of checklists during fall.

Swainson’s Thrushes are medium-sized thrushes that are pale underneath with spotted chests and brown on the back.

  • Catharus ustulatus
  • Length: 6.3-7.5 in (16-19 cm)
  • Weight: 0.8-1.6 oz (23-45 g)
  • Wingspan: 11.4-12.2 in (29-31 cm)

Swainson’s Thrushes can be found in forests foraging along the floor in leaf litter for insects in the breeding season and red fruits such as blackberries, raspberries, huckleberries, and sumac. Ants also make up part of their diet, and other insects will be fed to nestlings.

Usually only seen during migration in spring and fall in the lower 48, but Swainson’s Thrushes breed in Canada and Alaska before heading into Central and South America for winter.

Attract Swainson’s Thrushes to your backyard with ground-level birdbaths and by providing tree and shrub cover.

32. Savannah Sparrow

Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)

Savannah Sparrows breed in West Virginia from April to November and appear in 2% of the summer checklist.

If you get close enough to a Savannah Sparrow, you will see this brown bird has a distinctive yellow patch by the eye. They also have short tails and a streaky brown coloring.

  • Passerculus sandwichensis
  • Length: 4.3-5.9 in (11-15 cm)
  • Weight: 0.5-1.0 oz (15-28 g)
  • Wingspan: 7.9-8.7 in (20-22 cm)

Savannah Sparrows breed in Canada and the US before migrating to southern US states and Mexico for winter.

You can find Savannah Sparrows on the ground in open areas, such as grassland, foraging for insects and spiders in the breeding season, and seeds in the winter.

Nests of Savannah Sparrows are on or near the ground and made from grass. They lay up to six eggs, which take around two weeks to hatch and a further one or two weeks for the young to fledge.

These birds do not regularly visit feeders, but they may visit your yard if you keep brush piles, have long grass, and live near fields.

33. American Tree Sparrow

American tree sparrow

American Tree Sparrow are winter birds in West Virginia, and they start arriving in October and some stay until May, but November until March are the best months to spot them. They are recorded in 2% of winter checklists.

American Tree sparrows are long-tailed brown-streaked plump birds with rusty caps, gray faces, and a rusty eye line. 

  • Spizelloides arborea
  • Length: 5.5 in (14 cm)
  • Weight: 0.5-1.0 oz (13-28 g)
  • Wingspan: 9.4 in (24 cm)

American Tree Sparrows are a bird of winter in the US and a bird of summer in Canada. They breed in the far north of Canada and in Alaska and migrate to most US states for the winter, except along the Pacific and Gulf Coasts.

You can find American Tree Sparrows foraging in small flocks in weedy fields and under bird feeders.

Nests of American Tree Sparrows’ are usually on or near to the ground and are made of twigs, grass, and moss. They lay around five eggs, and these take just under two weeks to hatch and just over a week for the young to fledge.

Attract American Tree Sparrows to your backyard platform feeders with black oil sunflower seeds, nyjer, cracked corn, and millet. They also feed on seeds dropped on the ground from tube feeders.

34. Northern Waterthrush

Northern Waterthrushes

Northern Waterthrushes appear in 1% of summer checklists. They are mainly spotted in West Virginia from April to October.

Northern Waterthrushes are large, thrush-like birds. Males and females both bear similar traits. They both have brown heads with thick, white eyebrows, dark brown backs, and white bellies with dark, heavy streaking from their throats all the way to their rumps. 

  • Parkesia noveboracensis
  • Length: 5.75 inches (15 cm)
  • Weight: 0.8 oz (23 g)
  • Wingspan: 8.75 inches (22 cm)

Northern Waterthrushes breed in Canada, Alaska, and northeastern US states before migrating to Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Some may remain all year in Central and South America.

You can find Northern Waterthrushes in dark, woody swamps, thickets, and bogs. If there is any still or sluggish water in the forests, you’ll probably find a Northern Waterthrush around it. In winter, in the tropics, you will usually find them among mangroves. 

Northern Waterthrushes are aquatic and terrestrial foragers. With their long legs, they can walk on shallow water in search of water beetles, mosquitoes, slugs, crustaceans, snails, and sometimes small fish. They also eat caterpillars, moths, and ants, which they find under leaves. 

35. Marsh Wren

Marsh Wrens can be spotted in West Virginia during the spring and fall migration. However, they are most common in October and occur in 1.2% of checklists at this time.

Marsh Wrens are brown with black and white streaks on their back. Their underside is grayish brown, and they have the distinctive upright tail of the wren. Males and females look the same.

They look similar but lack stripes on their shoulders and have longer bills than Sedge Wrens.

  • Cistothorus palustris
  • Length: 3.9-5.5 in (10-14 cm)
  • Weight: 0.3-0.5 oz (9-14 g)
  • Wingspan: 5.9 in (15 cm)

Marsh Wrens breed in northern US states and Central Canada before migrating to southern states and Mexico. Some birds in the west and along the Atlantic Coast may remain resident all year. They can be spotted during migration in the eastern US.

You can find Marsh Wrens in wetlands clinging to reeds, with each foot grabbing a different stalk. They can be hard to spot but listen out for singing amongst the reeds, especially at dawn and dusk. They eat insects and spiders, which they pick off leaves close to the water.

Nests of Marsh Wrens are fully enclosed, except for a small opening in the top. They are made from reeds and grasses woven together.

How Frequently Brown Birds Are Spotted In West Virginia In Summer And Winter

Checklists are a great resource to find out which birds are commonly spotted in your state. These lists show which brown birds are most frequently recorded on checklists on ebird in summer and winter in West Virginia.

Brown Birds in West Virginia in summer:

American Robin 63.0%
Northern Cardinal 52.7%
Song Sparrow 46.2%
Eastern Towhee 44.6%
Mourning Dove 43.3%
American Goldfinch 43.2%
Carolina Wren 34.3%
Chipping Sparrow 32.8%
Wood Thrush 29.0%
Eastern Phoebe 24.6%
Cedar Waxwing 22.5%
Common Yellowthroat 21.9%
Field Sparrow 20.3%
House Sparrow 20.1%
Northern Flicker 19.9%
Brown Thrasher 19.3%
Brown-headed Cowbird 19.0%
House Finch 17.7%
House Wren 17.3%
Great Crested Flycatcher 13.2%
Rose-breasted Grosbeak 8.5%
Louisiana Waterthrush 7.1%
Hermit Thrush 4.6%
White-throated Sparrow 2.6%
Swamp Sparrow 2.5%
Swainson’s Thrush 2.3%
Winter Wren 2.1%
Savannah Sparrow 2.0%
Purple Finch 1.9%
Brown Creeper 1.5%
Northern Waterthrush 1.4%
White-crowned Sparrow 1.3%
Pine Siskin 1.0%
Marsh Wren <0.1%
Bewick’s Wren <0.1%
American Tree Sparrow <0.1%

Brown Birds in West Virginia in winter:

Northern Cardinal 51.5%
Song Sparrow 39.2%
Carolina Wren 36.2%
Mourning Dove 33.7%
American Goldfinch 29.3%
White-throated Sparrow 25.2%
House Finch 24.2%
House Sparrow 22.6%
American Robin 19.2%
Northern Flicker 12.2%
Eastern Towhee 7.4%
Brown Creeper 4.8%
White-crowned Sparrow 3.9%
Purple Finch 3.4%
Field Sparrow 3.2%
Winter Wren 3.2%
Pine Siskin 2.6%
Cedar Waxwing 2.5%
American Tree Sparrow 2.3%
Brown-headed Cowbird 1.9%
Swamp Sparrow 1.9%
Hermit Thrush 1.9%
Eastern Phoebe 1.3%
Chipping Sparrow 0.6%
Savannah Sparrow 0.4%
Brown Thrasher 0.3%
House Wren <0.1%
Common Yellowthroat <0.1%
Marsh Wren <0.1%
Rose-breasted Grosbeak <0.1%
Wood Thrush <0.1%
Bewick’s Wren <0.1%
Swainson’s Thrush <0.1%