Birds can be surprisingly large, especially if they spread their wings to an immense size and there are some very large birds in Minnesota.
- The largest bird by weight in Minnesota is the Mute Swan at 416 ounces
- The largest bird by length in Minnesota is the Trumpeter Swan at 72 inches
- The largest bird by wingspan in Minnesota is the American White Pelican at 110 inches
These are the largest birds in Minnesota in order by weight but check out the lists at the end to find out those largest by size and wingspan.
With their impressive size they should be fairly easy to spot, but how many can you find?
21 Large Birds In Minnesota:
1. Mute Swan
Mute Swans are non-native species in Minnesota, and although they are not very common here, they can be spotted in the south of the state all year.
Mute Swans are one of the largest and heaviest flying birds. They are non-native and were introduced to grace ornamental lakes and ponds but now have escaped into the wild and bred. They cause problems for native wildlife and can be aggressive.
They are entirely white, with long, graceful necks, orange bills with a large, black basal knob, black around the base of the bill, and black legs. Adults look alike, although males are larger than females.
- Cygnus olor
- Length: 56 – 62 in (142 – 157 cm)
- Weight: 416 oz (11789 g)
- Wingspan: 84 – 96 in (213 – 244 cm)
You can find numerous Mute Swans in city parks, protected bays, and lakes. You may also find them on shallow wetlands, rivers, and estuaries.
Mute Swans spend most of their time floating on water. They forage for underwater vegetation, and this is their staple diet when on water. They may also forage for food on land, feeding on grass and agricultural crops.
Mute Swans Call:
Fun Fact: Adult swans are highly protective of their young and will aggressively defend them when they sense danger or threats. They will hiss as a warning and will immediately chase and attack the predator if the warning is ignored.
2. Trumpeter Swan
Trumpeter Swans are spotted in Minnesota all year. They are recorded in 7% of summer checklists and 5% of winter checklists submitted by bird watchers for the state.
The Trumpeter Swan has the distinction of being the longest and heaviest living bird native to North America. It is also recognized as the heaviest flying bird in the world.
Trumpeter Swan adults are entirely white except for their black bills, legs, and feet. There is a black patch on their face, seemingly connecting their eyes to their bills. Their heads and neck may occasionally show some rust-brown coloring because of their contact with iron elements in wetland soils.
Juvenile Trumpeter Swans are mostly dusky-gray, with a pink center on their black bills.
- Cygnus buccinator
- Length: 58 – 72 in (147 – 183 cm)
- Weight: 401.6 oz (11381 g)
- Wingspan: 72 – 102 in (183 – 259 cm)
You can find Trumpeter Swans in marshes, lakes, and rivers with dense vegetation. They breed in open areas near shallow waters. They are sometimes seen on agricultural fields, too.
In water, Trumpeter Swans usually eat aquatic plants and vegetation, which they can reach with their bills underwater. With their long necks, they are able to reach plants in deeper water, even going as far as tipping, like a dabbling duck, to get at their food.
Trumpeter Swans Call:
Fun Fact: Trumpeter Swans generally mate for life. When nesting, there is always one adult that stays with the nest. They are both territorial and aggressive when it comes to protecting their nesting area.
3. Wild Turkey
Wild Turkeys are found in Minnesota all year and are spotted in 6% of summer checklists and 4% of winter checklists.
Wild Turkeys are the ancestors of domesticated turkeys and the heaviest among Galliformes. Their bodies look spherical and plump when they’re puffed and preening.
Adult male Wild Turkeys have small, bald, red-and-blue heads with fleshy growths called caruncles. They have red wattles hanging from their necks and throats.
They have snoods (a fleshy flap on the bill) that expand, elongate, and change color depending on their emotions, like when they’re excited or threatened.
Males have long, dark brown fanned tails with rusty or chestnut tips. Their body feathers are blackish or dark but usually have a glossy combination of red, purple, green, copper, bronze, and gold.
Adult female Wild Turkeys are smaller than males and they’re less colorful, mostly having bodies with shades of brown and gray.
- Meleagris gallopavo
- Length: 43.3 – 45.3 in (110 – 115 cm)
- Weight: 88.2 – 381.0 oz (2500 – 10800 g)
- Wingspan: 49.2 – 56.7 in (125 – 144 cm)
You can find Wild Turkeys in mature, mixed forests with oaks and pines with a good balance of cover and openings. Pastures, fields, and orchards are usually preferred habitats.
Wild Turkeys usually forage on the ground for acorns, nuts, and other seeds and berries. They scratch around and under leaves on the ground but sometimes they also climb shrubs and low trees for fruits. They also eat salamanders, snails, beetles, and other insects. They may visit backyard feeders too.
Fun Fact: Male Wild Turkeys court in groups. They puff their feathers, spread their tails, and gobble to attract females. Watch the colors of their heads and necks change depending on a Wild Turkey’s mood.
4. American White Pelican
American White Pelicans are usually found in Minnesota during summer from April to October, but a few also hang around all year. They appear in 5% of summer checklists.
American White Pelicans are large soaring birds that have the second-largest average wingspan of any North American bird.
Non-breeding adult American White Pelicans are white all over, except for black flight feathers that are only visible when in flight or when the wings are spread. Breeding adults grow a yellow plate on their upper bills, like a horn.
- Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
- Length: 60 – 63 in (152 – 160 cm)
- Weight: 246.4 oz (6983 g)
- Wingspan: 96 – 110 in (244 – 279 cm)
American White Pelicans breed in remote lakes inland in North America before spending the winter on the southern Pacific Coast of the US, the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico, and Central America. They can be spotted during migration in western and central US states.
You can find American White Pelicans in shallow freshwater lakes, wetlands, and edges of lakes and rivers. In the winter, you can find them in coastal bays, inlets, and estuaries where they forage in shallow water and rest on sandbars.
American White Pelicans mostly eat fish. They swim on the surface and capture their prey through their huge bills.
American White Pelican calls: These birds are usually silent or only make a few grunts. However, the young can be noisy in the large colonies begging for food.
Fun Facts: The long and huge bill of the American White Pelican is capable of holding three gallons of water. When it scoops up fish from the sea, it tilts its bill down to drain the water so it can then swallow the fish that’s left inside its throat sac.
5. Canada Goose
Canada Geese are very common in Minnesota. They are spotted in the state all year but are more common during summer. They occur in 30% of summer checklists and 9% of winter checklists.
Canada Geese are large, long-necked geese recognized for their black head and easily identifiable white chin straps, and loud honking calls.
Their bodies are brown with a tan or pale chest and white rump. The color of the bodies among the subspecies may be shades of gray or brown. Their legs and webbed feet are black.
- Branta canadensis
- Length: 25 – 45 in (64 – 114 cm)
- Weight: 230.09 oz (6521 g)
- Wingspan: 70 – 75 in (178 – 190 cm)
As their name would suggest, Canada Geese breed in Canada and migrate for the winter to southern US states, but those in northern US states remain all year and do not migrate. They are also found in western Europe.
You can find Canada Geese practically anywhere. They are often seen near lakes and rivers, basically, anywhere there’s a body of water and an abundant food source.
In some places, their population has risen considerably and they’re considered pests.
Canada Geese mainly eat grasses when they’re on land and small aquatic insects and fish when they’re on the water, but will raid your trash can if they can.
Canada Goose Call:
Fun Fact: During the breeding season, adults lose their flight feathers because it coincides with their molting season. They only regain their feathers after twenty to forty days, just in time for them to fly with their young.
6. Whooping Crane
Whooping Cranes are considered endangered and rare species in Minnesota and they were last spotted around Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge in 2021.
Whooping Cranes are majestic birds with graceful courtship dances and trumpeting calls. They were so endangered that only around 20 survived in the 1940s but efforts to save them have increased their number to 600.
They have all-white bodies, a red crown, a black facial mask, and black feathers that are only visible in flight on their 7-foot wingspan. Their long legs are also black.
- Grus americana
- Length: 52 in (132 cm)
- Weight: 204.8 oz (5804 g)
- Wingspan: 87 in (221 cm)
Whooping Cranes breed in a small area of shallow wetlands in Canada and migrate for winter to marshes and tidal areas in Texas and a reintroduced population that breeds in Wisconsin migrates to Florida.
Whooping Cranes forage on both land and water. They eat plants, berries, and seeds that they pick from the ground. When on or near water, they will probe below sand and soil to capture frogs, snakes, insects, mollusks, and crustaceans.
Whooping Crane calls:
Fun Fact: The Whooping Crane has the distinction of being the tallest bird native to North America at nearly five feet tall, nearly as tall as a human and they have been taught their migration routes to reintroduced areas by following ultralight aircraft.
7. Bald Eagle
Bald Eagles can be spotted all year in Minnesota. They are recorded in 11% of summer checklists and 15% of winter checklists.
The Bald Eagle is a widely-recognized bird of prey. It has a white head, yellow eyes, and a large, hooked yellow bill. Its body is chocolate brown, and its legs are yellow, with huge talons.
Females look similar to males, except they’re about 25% larger. Juveniles have dark brown heads and bodies with variable white mottling or streaking until they reach their fifth year.
- Haliaeetus leucocephalus
- Length: 34 – 43 in (86 – 109 cm)
- Weight: 168 oz (4761 g)
- Wingspan: 72 – 96 in (183 – 244 cm)
Bald Eagles breed predominantly in Canada and then migrate to the United States for winter. However, some remain resident all year, especially in coastal regions.
You can find the Bald Eagle, during its breeding season, in wetland environments. Open and large bodies of water with plenty of fish are ideal spots.
Bald Eagles are opportunistic feeders and will eat what is available. Their favorite food is fish, and they prefer large ones, like trout and salmon, but also take birds and mammals. They may hunt these fish themselves or steal them away from other birds.
Bald Eagle Calls: The squeak of the Bald Eagle does not fit its size as they make a rather disappointing high-pitched whistle!
Fun Fact: The Bald Eagle has been the national symbol of America since 1782. It may be named “bald,” but it isn’t actually bald. The old version of “bald” actually meant “white,” referring to its white head and tail.
8. Golden Eagle
Golden Eagles are not very common in Minnesota, but there have been sightings here during winter, especially from October to November.
Golden Eagles are the most widely distributed eagles in the world. Their crown and nape (neck) are golden-brown and are a sight to behold when in the right light.
Their bodies are darker brown but with pale flight feathers. Their eyes vary from light yellow to dark brown and are ringed in yellow.
While adults look similar, females are larger than males. Juveniles are also similar, but they tend to have a darker color.
- Aquila chrysaetos
- Length: 27 – 38 in (69 – 97 cm)
- Weight: 160 oz (4534 g)
- Wingspan: 72 – 96 in (183 – 244 cm)
Golden Eagles that breed in Canada and Alaska migrate south for winter to the United States and northern Mexico. However, Golden Eagles in western US states remain all year.
You can find Golden Eagles in mountainous habitats far above the treelines. They also inhabit canyons, riverside cliffs, and bluffs when nesting. They generally prefer to avoid human presence.
Since Golden Eagles are birds of prey, naturally, they’d prey on small to medium-sized animals like rabbits, prairie dogs, and hares. On occasion, they may also hunt and take down larger prey like cranes, swans, and domestic livestock.
They usually hunt in pairs, with one chasing down the prey until it gets tired, and then the other swoops in for the kill.
Golden Eagle Call: The main calls that are made by Golden Eagles are during the breeding season when chicks are begging, and parents respond. Otherwise, they are pretty quiet. They make high-pitched whistled calls.
Fun Fact: The Golden Eagle, the Rough-legged Hawk, and the Ferruginous Hawk are the only American birds of prey that have feathers on their legs up to their toes.
9. Sandhill Crane
Sandhill Cranes spend the breeding season in Minnesota and are best spotted from March to November. They appear in 6% of summer checklists.
Adult Sandhill Cranes are tall, gray heavy-bodied birds with very distinctive bright-red crowns and white cheeks and necks. They have long black bills and long, black legs. They have heavy-looking, droopy feathers at the back.
Breeding adults may have more rusty or tan coloring on their gray bodies. Juveniles, on the other hand, are rusty brown without any white cheeks or red crowns.
- Antigone canadensis
- Length: 34 – 48 in (86 – 122 cm)
- Weight: 132.27 oz (3749 g)
- Wingspan: 73 – 90 in (185 – 229 cm)
Sandhill Cranes breed in Alaska, Canada, and northern and central US states before migrating to southern US states for winter.
You can find Sandhill Cranes during winter in shallow lakes, irrigated croplands, pastures, and grasslands. From spring to summer, they move to and stay in their breeding grounds in open wetland habitats with shrubs or trees.
Sandhill Cranes are omnivores and feed on both land and water. When on land, they eat seeds, grains, berries, and tubers. When on water, they will pluck out plants from the water, or probe through mud and vegetation for amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals with their long bills.
Sandhill Crane Calls:
Fun Facts: Sandhill Cranes find their mates by performing unison calling (loudest and most noticeable calls) and through dancing rituals. They are monogamous and mate for life.
10. Great Blue Heron
Great Blue Herons are common in Minnesota during the breeding season and are mainly spotted from April to September, but a few hang around all year. They occur in 16% of summer checklists.
Great Blue Herons are very large, majestic birds that are the largest heron native to North America. Their pale gray bodies can look white in flight.
They have a white face with a black crest or plume that extends from the front of their eyes to the back of their heads. Their bills are yellow-orangish and they have long gray necks with black and white streaking in the front, pale grayish-blue bodies with dark wingtips, and long gray legs.
- Ardea herodias
- Length: 46 – 52 in (117 – 132 cm)
- Weight: 128 oz (3628 g)
- Wingspan: 77 – 82 in (196 – 208 cm)
Great Blue Herons remain in most US states all year, but those that breed in the Mid-West and Canada migrate south.
You can find Great Blue Herons in many wetland environments. They can be present in fresh and saltwater marshes, mangrove swamps, flooded marshes, lake edges, or shorelines.
Great Blue Heron Call:
Fun Fact: Great Blue Herons defend their feeding territory with dramatic wing outstretched displays, with their heads thrown back.
11. Snowy Owl
Snowy Owls are vulnerable species in Minnesota but they spend winter in the state, from October to April, and occur in 1% of winter checklists.
Male Snowy Owls are either white all over or have a small amount of brown spots.
Female Snowy Owls have flecks of dark brown to black on their backs, wings, and flanks, unlike the more white males. They also have thicker and more complete barring on their tails compared to the males.
Juveniles have extensive brown barring all over their bodies except their faces, underwings, legs, and feet.
- Bubo scandiacus
- Length: 20.5-27.9 in (52-71 cm)
- Weight: 56.4-104.1 oz (1600-2950 g)
- Wingspan: 49.6-57.1 in (126-145 cm)
Snowy Owls breed in the arctic around the world, including the north of Canada, and migrate to southern Canada and northern US states.
You can find Snowy Owls in open Arctic tundra and prefer to situate themselves in areas with vantage points like hummocks, ridges, knolls, and bluffs so that they can keep a close watch on their surroundings. However, they may move southward for the winter when prey is lacking.
Snowy Owls are diurnal, unlike most other owls, and spend the 24-hour summer daylight hunting in the arctic.
They hunt small mammals, especially lemmings, and can eat 1600 in a year.
They also catch birds in flight, such as ptarmigan or waterfowl. In winter, they will eat rodents, rabbits, squirrels, and birds such as ducks and geese.
Snowy Owls calls: They make a strong raspy Hoo sound. They also hoot, whistle, and hiss if threatened.
Fun Fact: The Snowy Owl is also known as the Arctic Owl, the Polar Owl, and the White Owl.
12. Great Horned Owl
Great Horned Owls are spotted in Minnesota all year.
Great Horned Owls are one of the most common owls in North America.
Their most unique physical characteristic is their “Great Horns” which aren’t really horns but ear tufts. They’re tufts of feathers that they use as camouflage to make them appear like branches of trees.
The coloring and patterns of Great Horned Owls are also mainly for camouflage. Their backs and wings are mottled with gray, brown, black, or white.
- Bubo virginianus
- Length: 18.1 – 24.8 in (46 – 63 cm)
- Weight: 32.1 – 88.2 oz (910 – 2500 g)
- Wingspan: 39.8 – 57.1 in (101 – 145 cm)
Great Horned Owls are widespread throughout North America and do not migrate.
You can find Great Horned Owls in almost any environment in North America. As long as they have nesting sites, roosting sites, and an abundance of prey, they will be able to adapt to forests, deserts, grasslands, or cities.
Their varied diet includes small rodents such as mice, skunks, geese, and hares. They will also eat insects, fish, and carrion. They hunt from a perch, scanning their territory and swooping down to capture their prey with their strong talons.
Great Horned also hunt other raptors such as Ospreys, Peregrine falcons, or other owls.
Great Horned Owls: The distinctive 5-note Hoo call of the Great Horned Owl is made by both males and females, but females are higher pitched. They also make various whistles, shrieks, hisses, and coos.
Fun Fact: Great Horned Owls are the crows’ number one enemy. Crows will usually mob Great Horned Owls in their nests, and that is one of the best ways to find them.
13. Black Vulture
Black Vultures are considered rare or accidental species in Minnesota but they were last spotted around Stearns in 2021.
Black Vultures are considered the blackest of all the vultures. Their backs, wings, breasts, bellies, and tails are black, although they have silvery patches on the underside of their wings that make it look like they have fingers when in flight.
The Black Vulture has a gray, featherless head and neck that look like wrinkled skin. Their eyes are brown and they have grayish-white legs.
- Coragyps atratus
- Length: 23 – 27 in (58 – 69 cm)
- Weight: 76.8 oz (2177 g)
- Wingspan: 54 – 60 in (137 – 152 cm)
You can find Black Vultures in open areas of lowland and middle elevations. They are often seen in forested landscapes and roost in wooded areas that are close to water.
Black Vultures eat practically anything, but mainly they eat carrion or decaying animals. They may be able to see dead animals on the ground themselves, but they usually rely on other scavenger birds to direct them towards food.
Black Vultures Calls: They do not make many sounds and instead have a deep ‘coo’ grunt.
Fun Fact: Black Vultures are “bald” out of necessity because it needs to stick its head into the bodies of dead animals to get to their juiciest parts. Having feathers on their heads will make it hard for them to clean themselves up when bits and pieces of the carrion stick to the feathers.
14. Great Black-backed Gull
Great Black-backed Gulls are considered rare or accidental species in Minnesota but some have been spotted here from October to May.
Great Black-backed Gulls are recognized as the world’s largest gulls. They also have the distinction of being the only large gulls with black coloration on their wings and backs in the North Atlantic.
These gulls have white heads and underparts, yellow eyes rimmed with red, large, yellow bills with a red spot, and pink legs.
Juveniles take four years to reach their mature form and start streaked with gray-brown.
- Larus marinus
- Length: 25 – 31 in (64 – 79 cm)
- Weight: 64 oz (1814 g)
- Wingspan: 60 – 65 in (152 – 165 cm)
You can find Great Black-backed Gulls in many coastal environments like rocky and sandy beaches and estuaries. They also move further inland where there are large bodies of water like lakes, ponds, and rivers.
The primary food of Great Black-backed Gulls is fish but they are opportunistic feeders and will eat anything they can swallow from crabs to eggs and even other birds.
Great Black-backed Gull Calls:
Fun Fact: Great Black-backed Gulls are known for having long lives, with the oldest being over 26 years.
Ospreys breed in Minnesota and are recorded in 4% of summer checklists. They arrive here in March and start to migrate in October.
Ospreys are large, fierce-looking birds of prey that are also known as fish hawks or sea hawks for their specialized ability to catch large fish.
Their outer toe can turn backward and they have long powerful talons and spiny scales on the soles of their feet which aid them in grasping slippery, strong fish.
They are generally brown on the back and white underneath. Their heads are white, with some brown streaking on their crowns and foreheads. They have a distinctive broad brown line through their eyes that extends to the sides of their necks.
- Pandion haliaetus
- Length: 21 – 24 in (53 – 61 cm)
- Weight: 63.49 oz (1799 g)
- Wingspan: 54 – 72 in (137 -183 cm)
You can find Ospreys practically anywhere in the world, except Antarctica, particularly with large bodies of water. They can tolerate any habitat as long as the food is accessible and abundant.
Ospreys feed almost exclusively on live fish. They will search for prey and when found, hover over water, then dive, feet and talons first, to capture fish.
Fun Facts: Ospreys have reversible outer toes, like owls, that allow them to easily and securely grasp fish. They also have closeable nostrils to keep water from entering their noses when they plunge into the water.
16. Great Egret
Great Egrets spend the breeding season in western and southern Minnesota from March to October and occur in 8% of summer checklists.
Great Egrets are at their best during the breeding season when males have neon green facial skin and long, wispy feathers (aigrettes) extending from their backs to their tails, which they show off during courtship, like how a peacock flares out its tail.
They are large, all-white herons, which is why they’re often called Great White Herons. They are also called common egrets. These large birds are white, with dagger-like, long, bright yellow bills and long, black legs and feet.
Non-breeding males, females, and juveniles look alike.
- Ardea alba
- Length: 37 – 41 in (94 – 104cm)
- Weight: 59.96 oz (1699 g)
- Wingspan: 54 – 55 in (137 – 140 cm)
Great Egrets have a vast range around the world. Those in the southern and coastal US states remain all year, but those more inland and in Canada migrate south.
You can find Great Egrets in freshwater and saltwater marshes and tidal flats, but also fish ponds.
Great Egret Calls:
Fun Fact: The Great Egret was almost hunted to extinction because of their long white feathers (aigrettes) that were mainly used to decorate ladies’ hats.
17. Turkey Vulture
Turkey Vultures can be found in Minnesota during the breeding season and occur in 12% of summer checklists. You can spot them from March to October.
Turkey Vultures are aptly named. They do look like turkeys with their big, bald, red heads and upper necks and brownish-black bodies. However, they are larger than turkeys, and when they’re in flight, their broad wings are slightly raised and make a “V”.
Under their wings, they have gray coloring, making it seem like they’re two-toned. Their eyes are dark brown, and their bills are light-colored.
- Cathartes aura
- Length: 26 – 32 in (66 – 81 cm)
- Weight: 51.2 oz (1451 g)
- Wingspan: 68 – 72 in (173 – 183 cm)
You can find Turkey Vultures in a wide range of habitats, but the most common is open and semi-open areas next to woodlands.
Turkey Vultures’ main source of food is carrion or recently dead or decaying animals as long as it hasn’t decayed too much. They may feed on roadkill and washed-up fish and may even kill small or weak animals.
Turkey Vultures calls: They can only make a raspy hissing sound, but are usually silent.
Fun Facts: When Turkey Vultures are threatened or aggravated, they will vomit to provide a distraction and fly away. They may even pretend to be dead.
18. Rough-legged Hawk
Rough-legged Hawks spend winter in Minnesota from October to April. They appear in 2% of checklists at this time.
The feathered legs of the Rough-legged Hawks give them their name and help to keep them warm in the arctic. They are fairly large hawks, between the size of a crow and a goose.
This predominantly dark-brown species occurs in light and dark forms, with dark patches at the bend of the wing, end of their tails, and across the belly. They have broad wings that are relatively long and narrow compared to other hawks.
- Length: 18.5-20.5 in (47-52 cm)
- Weight: 25.2-49.4 oz (715-1400 g)
- Wingspan: 52.0-54.3 in (132-138 cm)
Rough-legged Hawks breed in Alaska and northern Canada before migrating to the US for winter. They are usually sighted hovering over marshes and open fields or perched on a pole.
Lemmings and voles provide most of the prey for Rough-legged Hawks. Voles, mice, ground squirrels, and other small mammals provide winter prey in states such as West Virginia.
Gyrfalcons are occasionally spotted in Minnesota during winter but they are extremely rare in the state and are considered accidental species.
Gyrfalcons are the largest Falcons and are apex predators of the Arctic, where they snatch birds from the sky or dive at great speed to catch unsuspecting prey from the ground.
Their coloring varies greatly but generally, they have three morphs – white, silver/gray, and dark. Silver/gray is most common in North America
The silver/gray morphs are heavily banded gray and white on their upperparts but some are mostly gray without obvious banding. Their underparts are evenly spotted and white at the throat. Juveniles have solid dark heads and are browner overall.
- Falco rusticolus
- Length: 20 – 25 in (51 – 64 cm)
- Weight: 41.6 oz (1179 g)
- Wingspan: 48 – 64 in (122 – 163 cm)
Gyrfalcons are found predominantly in the arctic and sub-arctic around the world. Those that breed in the high arctic of Canada migrate to the rest of Canada and into the United States for winter.
You can find Gyrfalcons in one of the harshest places on earth, the arctic tundra. They usually stay on cliffs near shorelines or rivers and with a vast open space where they can easily hunt prey.
Fun Fact: When the chicks aren’t able to finish off their meal, the female Gyrfalcon will keep or store their leftovers behind some vegetation to retrieve later.
20. Great Gray Owl
Great Gray Owls spend winter in Minnesota and are best spotted from December to February in the northeast of the state. They appear in 1% of checklists at this time.
The Great Gray Owl deserves the title of “Great” because it has a large head and has the largest facial disk among birds of prey, and a tail that’s a foot long. Its actual body may be small, but its feathers are thick and fluffy, making it look bigger than it really is.
They have long wings and tails, earning them the title “World’s Largest Owl”
Great Gray Owls are generally silvery gray with some pale gray, brown, and white streaks. They have large round heads, small yellow eyes, a hooked bill, and a white collar just under the bill. They do not have any ear tufts.
- Strix nebulosa
- Length: 24 – 33 in (61 – 84 cm)
- Weight: 27.2 oz (771 g)
- Wingspan: 54 – 60 in (137 – 152 cm)
Great Gray Owls do not migrate but may move around in some years looking for food. They are resident in Canada, Alaska, northwestern US states, and down the Pacific Coast.
You can find Great Gray Owls in dense, wet, evergreen forests. They usually hunt in open meadows with scattered trees. Bogs are also hunting grounds, and you can find them in mixed pine and oak forests.
Great Gray Owls are night hunters. First, they listen and wait at their perches. When they’ve targeted their prey, they swoop down and capture them, if in the open. If their prey is under snow, they “snow-plunge” their way in to grab their prey.
Their large facial disks give them excellent hearing that allows them to identify prey even under two feet of snow.
Prey usually includes small mammals like voles, gophers, mice, chipmunks, and lemmings. Sometimes, they may also feast on ducks, jays, and quail.
Great Gray Owl calls: The hoo calls of the Great Gray Owl are made by males and females.
Fun Fact: Great Gray Owls although they look large they are actually quite small under all those feathers and so only catch small prey such as rodents.
21. Pileated Woodpecker
Pileated Woodpeckers do not migrate and are residents of Minnesota all year. They are spotted in 8% of summer checklists and 10% of winter checklists.
The Pileated Woodpecker is the biggest Woodpecker in North America, and with its’ flaming-red triangular crest, it is very striking.
It is one of the biggest woodpeckers being nearly the size of a crow. It is mostly black with a white stripe, and when flying, the white underside of the wings can be seen. Males have an additional red stripe on the cheek.
Length: 15.8-19.3 in (40-49 cm)
Weight: 8.8-12.3 oz (250-350 g)
Wingspan: 26.0-29.5 in (66-75 cm)
They live all year in Eastern US states, across Canada, and into Northwestern US states.
You can find Pileated Woodpeckers in mature forests or drowned forests with lots of dead trees, but they also visit backyard feeders, especially for suet. They make distinctive rectangular holes in trees, so look out for these.
Pileated Woodpeckers mostly eat carpenter ants from dead trees and fallen logs, but they also eat beetle larvae, termites, and other insects as well as fruit and nuts such as blackberries, sumac berries, dogwood, and elderberry.
Pileated Woodpecker call and drumming:
Pileated Woodpeckers’ drum is loud and booming due to their size. They also make a ‘wuk-wuk-wuk’ call and one that sounds like laughing.
Largest Birds In Minnesota By Weight
- Mute Swan – 416 ounces
- Trumpeter Swan – 401.6 ounces
- Wild Turkey – 381 ounces
- American White Pelican – 246.4 ounces
- Canada Goose – 230.1 ounces
- Whooping Crane – 204.8 ounces
- Bald Eagle – 168 ounces
- Golden Eagle – 160 ounces
- Sandhill Crane – 132.3 ounces
- Great Blue Heron – 128 ounces
- Snowy Owl – 104.1 ounces
- Great Horned Owl – 88.2 ounces
- Black Vulture – 76.8 ounces
- Great Black-backed Gull – 64 ounces
- Osprey – 63.5 ounces
- Great Egret – 60 ounces
- Turkey Vulture – 51.2 ounces
- Rough-legged Hawk – 49.4 ounces
- Gyrfalcon – 41.6 ounces
- Great Gray Owl – 27.2 ounces
- Pileated Woodpecker – 12.3 ounces
Largest Birds In Minnesota By Length
- Trumpeter Swan – 72 inches
- American White Pelican – 63 inches
- Mute Swan – 62 inches
- Whooping Crane – 52 inches
- Great Blue Heron – 52 inches
- Sandhill Crane – 48 inches
- Wild Turkey – 45 inches
- Canada Goose – 45 inches
- Bald Eagle – 43 inches
- Great Egret – 41 inches
- Golden Eagle – 38 inches
- Great Gray Owl – 33 inches
- Turkey Vulture – 32 inches
- Great Black-backed Gull – 31 inches
- Snowy Owl – 27.9 inches
- Black Vulture – 27 inches
- Gyrfalcon – 25 inches
- Great Horned Owl – 24.8 inches
- Osprey – 24 inches
- Rough-legged Hawk – 20.5 inches
- Pileated Woodpecker – 19.3 inches
Largest Birds In Minnesota By Wingspan
- American White Pelican – 110 inches
- Trumpeter Swan – 102 inches
- Mute Swan – 96 inches
- Bald Eagle – 96 inches
- Golden Eagle – 96 inches
- Sandhill Crane – 90 inches
- Whooping Crane – 87 inches
- Great Blue Heron – 82 inches
- Canada Goose – 75 inches
- Turkey Vulture – 72 inches
- Osprey – 72 inches
- Great Black-backed Gull – 65 inches
- Gyrfalcon – 64 inches
- Great Gray Owl – 60 inches
- Black Vulture – 60 inches
- Snowy Owl – 57.1 inches
- Great Horned Owl – 57.1 inches
- Wild Turkey – 56.7 inches
- Great Egret – 55 inches
- Rough-legged Hawk – 54.3 inches
- Pileated Woodpecker – 29.5 inches