During summer or the spring and fall migration are the best times to spot sparrows in Alberta as many species breed here or make their way through the province to their breeding grounds.
This guide will help you identify all 23 species of sparrows by sight and sound that you can spot in Alberta. Also, find out what time of year to spot them and some fun facts.
It is worth taking the time to get to know these energetic little songbirds that you will frequently spot and hear as they are fun to watch. Juncos and Towhees are also sparrows, so they are included in this guide.
Sparrows are often described as ‘little brown jobs’ by birders so it is obvious that it can be a challenge for even an experienced birder to recognize them.
Many sparrows have distinctive head markings and often migrate, so you can discount them at certain times of the year. These two pieces of information help with identification and are included in this guide.
Sparrows mainly eat seeds and insects, and they will often come to backyard feeders. Find out the other species of birds that regularly visit Alberta and print a free ID chart.
This guide will help you identify the types of sparrows spotted in Alberta according to avibase and uses data collected from bird watchers on ebird to give real information about when these birds can be spotted.
When to Spot Sparrows in Alberta
Knowing when you are most likely to spot sparrows can help reduce the guesswork with these similar-looking birds. This guide sorts these birds by when you are most likely to spot them.
Sparrows in Alberta all year:
- House Sparrow
Sparrows in Alberta during migration:
- White-crowned Sparrow
- American Tree Sparrow
- Fox Sparrow
- Harris’s Sparrow
Sparrows in Alberta in summer:
- Dark-eyed Junco
- Clay-colored Sparrow
- Song Sparrow
- Savannah Sparrow
- White-throated Sparrow
- Chipping Sparrow
- Lincoln’s Sparrow
- Vesper Sparrow
- LeConte’s Sparrow
- Swamp Sparrow
- Spotted Towhee
- Nelson’s Sparrow
- Lark Sparrow
- Baird’s Sparrow
- Brewer’s Sparrow
- Lark Bunting
- Grasshopper Sparrow
- Golden-crowned Sparrow
Identifying Sparrow’s Songs
If you learn a few of the songs of sparrows by listening to the audio recordings in the guide, it will help, especially with some of the more distinctive sparrow songs. Such as White-throated Sparrows that sing long slow notes that change pitch and sound like a person whistling.
However, Golden-crowned Sparrows sing a few slow notes that decrease in pitch. Also, how about the strange buzz of the Grasshopper Sparrow or LeConte’s Sparrow? Have you heard them?
Sparrows in Alberta All Year
House Sparrows are an introduced species in Alberta that can be spotted here all year. They do not migrate and occur in 21% of summer checklists and 34% of winter checklists submitted by the bird watchers for the province.
House Sparrows are another introduced species that have done very well and are now one of the most common birds in North America. They have gray and brown heads and white cheeks, with a black bib. Their backs are black and brown, and their bellies are gray. Female House sparrows are browner all over and lack the black bib.
- Passer domesticus
- Length: 5.9-6.7 in (15-17 cm)
- Weight: 0.9-1.1 oz (27-30 g)
- Wingspan: 7.5-9.8 in (19-25 cm)
House Sparrows live in the US and southern Canada all year.
You can find House Sparrows near houses and buildings, and they can be pretty tame and may even eat out of your hand. However, they can cause problems for native birds as they do not migrate and get the best nesting sites before native birds arrive.
House Sparrows eat mostly grain and seed as well as discarded food. They can be considered a pest because they are non-native, but they are found in backyards even if you do not feed them.
House Sparrow sounds: Their song is a simple series of notes.
Nests of House Sparrows are hidden away in small openings in buildings or dense vegetation or nest boxes. Nests are made from dry grass and plant materials and lined with feathers and other soft materials.
They lay up to eight eggs and as many as four broods a year. Their eggs take under two weeks to hatch and a further two weeks for the chicks to fledge.
Attract House Sparrows to your backyard feeders with most kinds of birdseed, including millet, corn, and sunflower seeds.
Fun fact: As well as North America, House Sparrows have been introduced to South America, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Sparrows in Alberta in Summer
Dark-eyed Juncos can be spotted in Alberta during the breeding season, but their numbers also increase during the spring and fall migration from March to April and September to October.
They are spotted in around 10% of checklists in summer and winter but up to 30% during the migrations.
Dark-eyed Juncos are sparrows that are different a color depending on the state. They are generally slate-colored in the east and black, white, and brown in the west.
- Junco hyemalis
- Length: 5.5-6.3 in (14-16 cm)
- Weight: 0.6-1.1 oz (18-30 g)
- Wingspan: 7.1-9.8 in (18-25 cm)
Dark-eyed Juncos remain resident all year in the northeastern and western US states and the Appalachian Mountains. Those that breed in Canada and Alaska migrate south in winter to the United States.
You can find Dark-eyed Junco in open and partially wooded areas, often on the ground, and they are common across the continent. They mainly feed on seeds but will also eat some insects.
Dark-eyed Junco sounds: A simple song of a series of fast, high-pitched even notes.
Nests of Dark-eyed Juncos are usually on the ground, hidden in vegetation, woven from plant material, and lined with grass and hair. They lay up to six eggs, which take around two weeks to hatch and two weeks to fledge.
Attract Dark-eyed Juncos to backyard feeders with a variety of seeds such as black oil sunflower seeds, nyjer, cracked corn, millet, and peanuts. Platform feeders or seeds scattered on the ground are best.
Fun fact: Dark-eyed Juncos are known as snowbirds as they arrive in the United States in winter.
Clay-colored Sparrows spend the breeding season in Alberta and appear in 26% of summer checklists. They can be spotted from May until September.
These small, plain birds of the northern prairies and Great Plains have distinctive head markings which set them apart from other sparrows. They have a gray collar around their necks and long notched tails.
- Spizella pallida
- Length: 5.1 – 6 in (13 – 15 cm)
- Weight: 0.42 oz (12 g)
- Wingspan: 7.5 in (19 cm)
Clay-colored Sparrows are the most common sparrow you can spot in summer in the northern prairies. They breed in Canada and the northern Great Plains before migrating south to Texas and Mexico.
In summer, you can find Clay-colored Sparrows in shrubland, looking for seeds, leaf buds, or the occasional insect.
Clay-colored Sparrow sounds: Their song is a two-note buzzing sound.
Nests of Clay-colored Sparrows are usually close to the ground and well hidden in vegetation. The female makes them from twigs and grass, and they are lined with softer grasses and animal hair.
They lay up to five eggs which take around two weeks to hatch and a further week for the young to leave the nest.
Fun fact: Young Clay-colored Sparrows leave the nest before they can fly, and they have to run for cover when there is danger.
Song Sparrows are frequently spotted in Alberta during summer and are mainly seen during the breeding season, from May to August, and are recorded in 21% of summer checklists.
Song sparrows are not as remarkable looking as other backyard birds, but these predominantly brown-streaked birds use their almost constant song to attract mates in spring and summer.
- Melospiza melodia
- Length: 4.7-6.7 in (12-17 cm)
- Weight: 0.4-1.9 oz (12-53 g)
- Wingspan: 7.1-9.4 in (18-24 cm)
Song Sparrow live all year in northern US States. Those that breed in Canada migrate to southern US states for winter.
You can find Song Sparrows in open, shrubby, and wet areas, often perched on a low shrub singing. They are often found at backyard feeders.
Song Sparrows eat a wide variety of insects and plants, including beetles, caterpillars, midges, spiders, and earthworms. They will also eat buckwheat, sunflower seeds, raspberries, wild cherries, blackberries, wheat, and rice.
Song Sparrow sounds: They make a series of unconnected buzzing, trills, and notes rather than a melodious song. They also make sharp alarm calls and chatter calls when in groups.
Nests of Song Sparrows are made from grass and other plant material woven together and lined with soft grass and hair. They lay up to six eggs, which take around two weeks to hatch and just under two weeks for the young to leave the nest.
Attract Song Sparrows to your backyard by putting black oil sunflower seeds, cracked corn, and nyjer on platform feeders.
Fun fact: A study has found that Song Sparrows mix their playlist of songs, so they do not repeat and potentially bore prospective females!
Savannah Sparrows spend the breeding season in Alberta and are most frequently spotted from April until October. They appear in 23% of summer checklists.
If you get close enough to a Savannah Sparrow, you will see this brown bird has a distinctive yellow patch by the eye. They also have short tails and a streaky brown coloring.
- Passerculus sandwichensis
- Length: 4.3-5.9 in (11-15 cm)
- Weight: 0.5-1.0 oz (15-28 g)
- Wingspan: 7.9-8.7 in (20-22 cm)
Savannah Sparrows breed in Canada and the US before migrating to southern US states and Mexico for winter.
You can find Savannah Sparrows on the ground in open areas, such as grassland, foraging for insects and spiders in the breeding season, and seeds in the winter.
Savannah Sparrow sounds: An almost rushed sounding song which is a few fast notes followed by a buzzing trill.
Nests of Savannah Sparrows are on or near the ground and made from grass. They lay up to six eggs, which take around two weeks to hatch and a further one or two weeks for the young to fledge.
These birds do not regularly visit feeders, but they may visit your yard if you keep brush piles, have long grass, and live near fields.
Fun fact: Although they are one of the most common songbirds in North America, they are considered a threatened species by the ICUN.
White-throated Sparrows can be found in Alberta during the breeding season, but their numbers increase during the migrations. They are most commonly seen here from May to October.
White-throated Sparrows have a distinctive black and white striped head, bright white throat, and yellow between the eye and bill. Their backs are brown, and underneath is gray. There are two color differences with birds having either tan-striped or white-striped heads.
- Zonotrichia albicollis
- Length: 6.3-7.1 in (16-18 cm)
- Weight: 0.8-1.1 oz (22-32 g)
- Wingspan: 7.9-9.1 in (20-23 cm)
White-throated Sparrows are migratory birds, breeding mainly in Canada before heading south in winter to eastern and southern US states and the Pacific Coast.
You can find White-throated Sparrows on the ground in forests and woods and along the edges of wooded areas, often in large flocks.
White-throated Sparrows eat mainly seeds of grasses and weeds as well as fruits such as grape, sumac, mountain ash, blueberry, blackberry, and dogwood. They will also eat many insects from the forest floor, especially in summer.
White-throated Sparrow sounds: Their distinctive whistle is a few long, slow notes that change pitch. They can sound like a person whistling.
Nests of White-throated Sparrows are built by females, usually on the ground or low to the ground, in dense vegetation. They are made from moss and twigs, lined with softer material such as grass and animal hair.
They lay up to six eggs, which take around two weeks to hatch and a further week to two weeks for the young to fledge.
Attract White-throated Sparrows to your backyard feeders with millet and black oil sunflower seeds on platform feeders.
Fun fact: White-throated Sparrows always breed with the opposite color morph, either tan-striped or white-striped heads.
Chipping Sparrows spend the breeding season in Alberta and appear in 22% of summer checklists. They arrive in April and start to leave in mid-October.
Chipping Sparrows are slender, long-tailed birds with a grayish belly and brown and black-streaked back, with a rusty crown and black eye line. In winter, the colors are more subdued.
- Spizella passerina
- Length: 4.7-5.9 in (12-15 cm)
- Weight: 0.4-0.6 oz (11-16 g)
- Wingspan: 8.3 in (21 cm)
Chipping Sparrows spend their summer breeding in the US and Canada before flying to Mexico and Florida for winter. Some remain all year in the southern US states.
You can find Chipping Sparrows in small flocks on the ground, often in woods and parks with trees.
Chipping Sparrow sounds: They get their name from the sharp ‘chip’ call they make. Their distinctive song is a stuttering trill.
Nests of Chipping Sparrows are off the ground, hidden in trees or shrubs, and are built by females. The nests are made from dried grass and small roots, but they are very basic and not very dense.
Chipping Sparrows lay up to seven eggs and up to three broods a year. The eggs take around two weeks to hatch, and the young fledge in under two weeks.
Attract Chipping Sparrows to your backyard with seeds or cracked corn on open feeders such as hoppers or platforms.
Fun fact: A group of Chipping Sparrows is known as a tournament.
Lincoln’s Sparrows breed in Alberta and are spotted in Alberta from April to October.
Lincoln’s Sparrows are medium-sized sparrows, mainly gray in color and with streaks of brown across their wings and chest and white bellies. Their heads may look pointed when they raise their crown feathers. Its eyering is buffy and with a gray eyebrow area and dark eye line.
- Melospiza lincolnii
- Length: 5.1-5.9 in (13-15 cm)
- Weight: 0.6-0.7 oz (17-19 g)
- Wingspan: 7.5-8.7 in (19-22 cm)
Lincoln’s Sparrows breed in Canada and parts of western US states and migrate to southern US states, the Pacific Coast, and Mexico for winter. They can be seen during migration in the rest of the US.
You can find Lincoln’s Sparrow mostly in densely-covered shrubs and thickets, particularly near streams and wet or damp areas. They migrate to tropical but humid forests during the winter.
Lincoln’s Sparrows mostly eat weeds and grasses during the winter. During the breeding season, they will eat insects like spiders, ants, and caterpillars, but they still feed plants to their young.
Lincoln’s Sparrow sounds: Their song is a fast trill of notes and some buzzes that is one of the most tuneful of all the sparrows.
Nest of Lincoln’s Sparrows are built by females on the ground, protected and screened by thick shrubs. The nests are lined with moss or grass, and they lay around four eggs.
The eggs take up to two weeks to hatch, and the young leave the nest in under two weeks after hatching. Their flying skills improve fast, and by the 6th day, they can fly more than ten meters.
Fun fact: Lincoln’s Sparrows are very secretive birds and are not often seen but can be recognized by their sweet song.
Vesper Sparrows are seen in Alberta during the breeding season, mostly in the south of the province, from May to September. They are recorded in 7% of summer checklists.
Vesper Sparrows are quite large sparrows that are mostly brown on the back, with white streaks and white bellies.
- Pooecetes gramineus
- Length: 5.1-6.3 in (13-16 cm)
- Weight: 0.7-1.0 oz (20-28 g)
- Wingspan: 9.4 in (24 cm)
Vesper Sparrows spend the summer breeding in the northern half of the US, southern Canada, and down into southwestern US states. Then, they migrate to southern US states and Mexico for winter.
You can find Vesper Sparrows on the ground in open grasslands and weedy fields and meadows. They eat seeds of grasses and weeds and some insects and spiders.
Vesper Sparrow sounds: Males start with a few low whistles followed by a series of rising and falling trills.
Nests of Vesper Sparrows are on the ground and made from grass, bark, and moss. They lay up to six eggs which take up to two weeks to hatch and a further one or two weeks for the young to leave the nest.
Fun fact: Male Vesper Sparrows run after females with their wings raised, leaping into the air and singing to attract their attention.
LeConte’s Sparrows spend the breeding season in Alberta, from May to September, and appear in 3% of summer checklists.
LeConte Sparrows are a dull orange with black streaks on their backs and wings. Their belly is white with pale orange across the chest. They also have gray patches on their cheeks and a dark eye line.
- Ammospiza leconteii
- Length: 4.7-5.1 in (12-13 cm)
- Weight: 0.4-0.6 oz (12-16.3 g)
- Wingspan: 6.3-7.1 in (16-18 cm)
LeConte’s Sparrows breed mainly in Canada and migrate to the south-central US states. They can be seen during migration over the Great Plains.
You can find Le’Conte’s Sparrows on the ground foraging for seeds and insects in dense grassland that is marshy or boggy. Unfortunately, they are so small and shy that they can be hard to spot.
LeConte’s Sparrow song:
Nests of LeConte’s Sparrows are near to the ground, hidden in dead grass and rushes and made from grass. They lay around five eggs which take about ten days to hatch.
Swamp Sparrows breed in the plains of Alberta and can be spotted here from May until October.
Swamp Sparrows are dark brown on the back with rusty crowns and wings. They have gray breasts and white throats. Their heads are gray, and they have brown faces with a dark eye line and yellow end to the beak.
- Melospiza georgiana
- Length: 4.7-5.9 in (12-15 cm)
- Weight: 0.5-0.8 oz (15-23 g)
- Wingspan: 7.1-7.5 in (18-19 cm)
Swamp Sparrows are more located in the east. They breed in Canada and northeastern and North Central US states before migrating to eastern and southern US states and Mexico.
As the name would suggest, Swamp Sparrows are found in wetlands, swamps, bogs, and coastal marshes. They feed on seeds and fruit, especially in winter, and insects in spring.
Swamp Sparrow sounds: Their song is a rapid trill of the same note.
Nests of Swamp Sparrows are usually hidden in vegetation on or close to the ground and made from twigs, leaves, and cattails. The nest is lined with grass and other plant material.
They lay up to six eggs, which take two weeks to hatch, and the young take a further one or two weeks to fledge.
Swamp Sparrows do not visit backyards except in migration to yards with lots of vegetation and water.
Fun fact: Swamp Sparrows sing before dawn when it is still dark.
Spotted Towhees can be spotted in southern Alberta during the breeding season, from May to September, and are recorded in around 1% of summer checklists.
Spotted Towhees are large sparrows that are black on the head, throat, and back in the males and brown in the females. Both males and females have reddish-brown sides and white bellies, with white spots on their wings and back and long tails.
- Pipilo maculatus
- Length: 6.7-8.3 in (17-21 cm)
- Weight: 1.2-1.7 oz (33-49 g)
- Wingspan: 11.0 in (28 cm)
Spotted Towhees live in western US states, but those inland in the north migrate south to Texas after breeding.
Spotted Towhees can be found on the ground in dense tangles of shrubs scratching around for insects, including beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, caterpillars, wasps, and bees. They also eat acorns, berries, and seeds.
Spotted Towhee sounds: Songs are short notes followed by fast trills.
Nests of Spotted Towhees are usually on or near the ground and made from leaves, stems, and bark lined with softer material. They lay up to six eggs, which take around two weeks to hatch and a further ten days for the young to fledge.
Attract Spotted Towhees to your yard if you leave overgrown borders, and they will visit platform feeders or ground feeders for Black Oil Sunflower seeds, Hulled Sunflower seeds, Cracked Corn, Millet, and Milo.
Fun fact: Spotted Towhee males spend most of their mornings singing when trying to attract a mate.
Nelson’s Sparrows are not often seen in Alberta, but they have been spotted in the southeast of the province during the breeding season, mostly in June and July.
Nelson’s Sparrows are more orangy in color across the head and chest. Their backs are gray and brown-streaked, and their bellies are gray. Coastal birds are less bright in color than interior birds.
- Ammospiza nelsoni
- Length: 4.3-5.1 in (11-13 cm)
- Weight: 0.6-0.7 oz (17-21 g)
- Wingspan: 6.5-7.9 in (16.5-20 cm)
Nelson’s Sparrows breed mainly in central Canadian provinces, and then they migrate to the Gulf and Atlantic Coast for winter. They can be seen during migration across the Great Plains.
You can find Nelson’s Sparrows on the ground in wetlands in summer, foraging for seeds and insects. In winter, you can find them in saltwater and brackish marshes.
Nelson’s Sparrow sounds:
Nests of Nelson’s Sparrows are usually close to the ground and made from grass by the female. They lay up to six eggs which take under two weeks to hatch.
Fun fact: Nelson’s Sparrow males fly fast and far just above the marsh vegetation in a courtship display.
Lark Sparrows spend the breeding season in southeastern Alberta, mostly from mid-May, and they start to migrate in August.
The small Lark Sparrow has highly-distinctive features. It has a brown and white striped crown, brown-streaked back, white belly, and brown, white-edged tail.
- Chondestes grammacus
- Length: 5.9-6.7 in (15-17 cm)
- Weight: 0.8-1.2 oz (24-33 g)
- Wingspan: 11.0 in (28 cm)
Lark Sparrows breed in most US states, except towards the east. They also breed in some southern Canadian Provinces. Winter is spent in Mexico, but birds along the Pacific Coast, mainly in California and some southern states, remain all year.
You can find Lark Sparrows on the bare, open ground like grasslands, but they also favor trees and pastures with a few scattered shrubs.
Lark Sparrows will feast on many insects like grasshoppers, caterpillars, and beetles in summer and mostly seeds, grasses, and weeds during the winter.
Lark Sparrow sounds: The males’ song is a happy series of whistles, buzzes, and churr sounds.
Nests of Lark Sparrows are built by both males and females. The male will place twigs at the site, but females will do the actual construction. The nests can be on the ground, in low trees, and even in crevices in rocky cliffs.
The female creates an open cup made with grass, weeds, animal hair, and twigs. There are up to six eggs in a nest, and they take around twelve days to hatch and an additional ten days for the young to leave the nest.
Attract Lark Sparrows to your backyard with their favorite food, seeds.
Fun fact: Male Lark Sparrows take 5 minutes to dance during their courting ritual.
Baird’s Sparrows are not very common in Alberta, but they can be spotted in the southeast of the province during the breeding season, from May to August.
Baird’s Sparrows are medium-sized yellowish-brown birds. They are recognizable because of the narrow, brown streaks on their throats, very much like a necklace on their bodies.
Their heads also have a central dark brown stripe, and their backs have light and dark brown stripes. Their bellies are yellowish or white. Males and females look the same, but juveniles are paler in color.
- Centronyx bairdii
- Length: 14 cm (5.5 in)
- Weight: 23 g (0.8 oz)
- Wingspan: 22 cm (8.5 in)
Baird’s Sparrows breed in the northern Great Plains and migrate south for winter to the north of Mexico and the southwestern United States.
You can find Baird’s Sparrows in tall grass prairies or mixed grass prairies. Due to their diminishing habitats, they can now be found in ungrazed pastures, grasslands, and agricultural fields.
Baird’s Sparrows stay low and hidden on the ground when foraging for food. They usually walk or hop between clumps of grass to collect seeds and insects.
Baird’s Sparrow song:
Nests of Baird’s Sparrows are usually built in shallow holes on the ground or hidden within clumps of grass. They are made of grass and weeds with soft materials lining the inside. There may be two to six eggs in a nest. The female incubates them for about twelve days.
Fun Fact: Baird’s Sparrows continually shift their breeding regions from year to year in reaction to environmental hazards and roving bison herds.
Brewer’s Sparrows are extremely rare to find, but they are spotted in southern Alberta during the breeding season from May to September.
Brewer’s Sparrows are gray underneath and streaked brown on their backs. They have long tails with a notch at the end and small bills. Brewer’s Sparrows are the smallest sparrow in North America.
- Spizella breweri
- Length: 5.1-5.9 in (13-15 cm)
- Weight: 0.4-0.5 oz (11-14 g)
- Wingspan: 7.1-7.9 in (18-20 cm)
Brewer’s Sparrows breed in western US states and western Canada and migrate south for winter to southwestern US states and Mexico. They are very common sparrows in their range.
You can find Brewer’s Sparrows in arid sagebrush foraging for insects, such as caterpillars, grasshoppers, and spiders. In winter, they will also eat seeds.
Brewer’s Sparrow sounds: Their song is a buzzing sound that often descends and slows down.
Nests of Brewer’s Sparrows are built by females in shrubs from dry grass. They lay up to five eggs which take around eleven days to hatch and around a further eight days for the young to leave the nest.
Fun fact: Brewer’s Sparrows are small but mighty, and they will mob and chase predators away from their nests.
Lark Buntings are very rare in Alberta, but they breed from May to August in the southeast of the province.
Male Lark Buntings are one of the easiest of the sparrow family to recognize. Males are black with a white wing patch. However, females and non-breeding males are brown-streaked in color, but they also have white in their wings.
- Calamospiza melanocorys
- Length: 5.5-7.1 in (14-18 cm)
- Weight: 1.3-1.5 oz (35.3-41.3 g)
- Wingspan: 9.8-11.0 in (25-28 cm)
Lark Buntings breed in central states and southern Canada and migrate to the southern Great Plains and northern Mexico for winter. However, some birds remain all year in southern US states.
You can find Lark Bunting on the ground in open grasslands and prairie with sagebrush. They eat seeds, insects, and some fruit.
Lark Bunting Call/Song:
The nests of Lark Bunting are built by both males and females and are made from grass and leaves lined with soft grass and animal hair. They lay up to five eggs that take around eleven days to hatch and a further week for the young to leave the nest.
Fun fact: Male Lark Buntings sing while flying back down from height in the breeding season.
Grasshopper Sparrows are extremely rare to find in Alberta, but they have been spotted in the southeast of the province during the breeding season.
Grasshopper Sparrows are tiny birds with light and dark brown streaking and a distinctive orange or yellow stripe above their eye. They have short tails, large bills, and pale bellies.
- Ammodramus savannarum
- Length: 4.3-4.5 in (10.8-11.5 cm)
- Weight: 0.5-0.7 oz (14-20 g)
- Wingspan: 7.9 in (20 cm)
Grasshopper Sparrows breed in central and eastern US states, California’s coast, and parts of northwestern US states. They spend winter in southeastern US states, Mexico, and the Caribbean.
You can find Grasshopper Sparrows on the ground in grassland and prairies or other open areas hunting for grasshoppers and other insects and spiders. In winter, they mostly eat fallen seeds.
Grasshopper Sparrow sounds: The buzzy insect-like song of the Grasshopper Sparrow is how they get their name.
Nests of Grasshopper Sparrows are on the ground in vegetation. They are made out of grasses and plant material, and they create a roof by weaving surrounding stalks and creating an entrance on the side.
They lay up to seven eggs four times during the breeding season. The eggs take up to two weeks to hatch and a further week or so for the young to leave the nest.
Fun Fact: Grasshopper Sparrows violently shake their grasshopper prey to remove the large legs so that they can feed the bodies to their young.
Golden-crowned Sparrows are extremely rare to spot in Alberta, but there have been sightings along the western border of the province during the breeding season.
Golden-crowned Sparrows are grayish-brown underneath and streaked brown on the back. Their heads have a black crown and a bright-yellow forehead.
The colors are duller and brown on the crown in winter, and the yellow forehead is also duller.
- Zonotrichia atricapilla
- Length: 5.9-7.1 in (15-18 cm)
- Weight: 1.1-1.2 oz (30-33 g)
Golden-crowned Sparrows breed in Alaska and western Canada before migrating to the West Coast for winter.
You can find Golden-crowned Sparrow in weedy fields scratching for seeds such as dock, sumac, and geranium. They also eat fruit such as apples, grapes, elderberry, and olives. Insects also make up some of their diets, such as ants, beetles, butterflies, and termites.
Golden-crowned Sparrows sounds: Their song is a sad, slow series of whistles that decrease in pitch.
Nests of Golden-crowned Sparrows are usually on the ground and made from twigs, moss, and leaves. They are lined with softer material, such as animal hair, grass, and feathers.
They lay around four eggs, which take just under two weeks to hatch and a further ten days for the young to fledge.
Attract Golden-crowned Sparrows to your backyard with seeds on ground feeders or plant native plants that fruit.
Fun fact: The gold crown of Golden-crowned Sparrows shows how dominant they are, with larger crowns showing more dominance. This helps to reduce fights amongst males.
Sparrows in Alberta during Migration
White-crowned Sparrows are mainly spotted in Alberta during the spring and fall migrations in May and September, but some breed in the southwest of the province.
They are spotted in around 10% of checklists in summer but up to 19% during the migrations.
White-crowned Sparrows are large grayish sparrows with long tails, small bills, and bold black and white stripes on their heads.
- Zonotrichia leucophrys
- Length: 5.9-6.3 in (15-16 cm)
- Weight: 0.9-1.0 oz (25-28 g)
- Wingspan: 8.3-9.4 in (21-24 cm)
White-crowned Sparrows breed in Alaska and arctic Canada before heading south to the lower 48 and Mexico for winter. However, some may remain along the Pacific Coast and the mountainous west all year.
You can find White-crowned Sparrows in weedy fields, along roadsides, forest edges, and in yards foraging for seeds of weeds and grasses or fruit such as elderberries and blackberries.
White-crowned Sparrow sounds: The males’ song is a clear whistle, followed by a series of chaotic whistles and finishing with a buzz. Calls are usually short and sharp. Females rarely call or sing.
Nests of White-crowned Sparrows are made from twigs, grass, moss, and pine needles, often low to the ground in shrubs or on the ground in the tundra. They lay up to seven eggs, which take up to two weeks to hatch and around nine days for the chicks to fledge.
Attract White-crowned Sparrows to your backyard with sunflower seeds, and they will also eat seeds dropped by other birds at the feeders.
Fun fact: Young White-crowned Sparrows take a further week or two to learn to fly after leaving the nest.
American Tree Sparrow
American Tree Sparrows are mostly spotted in Alberta during migrations, but some stay in the south of the province during winter.
American Tree sparrows are long-tailed brown-streaked plump birds with rusty caps, gray faces, and a rusty eye line.
- Spizelloides arborea
- Length: 5.5 in (14 cm)
- Weight: 0.5-1.0 oz (13-28 g)
- Wingspan: 9.4 in (24 cm)
American Tree Sparrows are a bird of winter in the US and a bird of summer in Canada.
They breed in the far north of Canada and in Alaska and migrate to most US states for the winter, except the Pacific and Gulf Coasts.
You can find American Tree Sparrows foraging in small flocks in weedy fields and under bird feeders.
American Tree Sparrows sounds: Males sing a pleasant song from late winter, before migration. Their song is a tuneful series of rising and falling whistles.
Nests of American Tree Sparrows’ are usually on or near to the ground and are made of twigs, grass, and moss. They lay around five eggs, and these take just under two weeks to hatch and just over a week for the young to fledge.
Attract American Tree Sparrows to your backyard platform feeders with black oil sunflower seeds, nyjer, cracked corn, and millet. They also feed seeds dropped on the ground from tube feeders.
Fun fact: American Tree Sparrows do not spend much time in trees but forage and nest on the ground. Their name comes from European settlers that thought they looked similar to the European Tree Sparrow.
Fox Sparrows are not very common, but they are mainly spotted in Alberta during migrations. However, some do live in the north and west of the province during the breeding season.
Although some species are more gray or dark brown, the Fox Sparrow is aptly named after its fox-red coloring. Its reddish streaks are particularly obvious in its chest area. It is a chunky bird compared to other sparrows.
There are four different color and appearance variations in Fox Sparrows. Red Fox Sparrows are found in eastern areas, and darker ‘sooty’ Fox Sparrows are found along the Pacific Coast. Thick-billed Fox Sparrows are found in California, and Slate-colored Fox Sparrows are found in western US states.
- Passerella iliaca
- Length: 5.9-7.5 in (15-19 cm)
- Weight: 0.9-1.6 oz (26-44 g)
- Wingspan: 10.5-11.4 in (26.7-29 cm)
Fox Sparrows migrate and breed in the north and west of Canada, Alaska, and down as far as California in the western US.
They spend the winter in southeastern US states and along the Pacific coast. Some remain all year on Canada’s Pacific coast, and they can be seen during migration in central and northeastern US states.
You can find Fox Sparrows in wooded areas, undergrowth, and brush. In the winter, they migrate to similar areas, even in well-vegetated suburbs and parks. You may observe them kicking up leaf litter in the air in search of food on the ground.
Insects and seeds are a common diet of Fox Sparrows. At times, they may also eat berries and grasses and crustaceans and marine animals if they’re near the beach.
Fox Sparrow sounds: Males sing a pleasant series of whistles and buzzy notes.
Nests of Fox Sparrow are hidden under dense, low shrubs. They may also build them in low trees but not more than eight feet above the ground. The nest is covered with grass, weeds, and moss but lined with dry grass. For those above ground, twigs are used to toughen up the nest’s walls.
They lay two to five eggs, which take about two weeks to hatch. The young may leave the nest within eleven days of hatching.
Attract Fox Sparrows to your backyard with small seeds and berries and low native shrubs.
Fun fact: The female Fox Sparrow can build a nest in a flash. They can start a nest at sunrise and finish it by dusk!
Harris’s Sparrows are considered near-threatened species, but they can be spotted in eastern Alberta during the spring and fall migration.
Harris’s Sparrows are distinctive, with a black face and bib darker in adults than juveniles. They also have brown-streaked bodies, with pale bellies and pink bills. Breeding adults have gray heads, but non-breeding adults have brown heads.
- Zonotrichia querula
- Length: 6.7-7.9 in (17-20 cm)
- Weight: 0.9-1.7 oz (26-49 g)
- Wingspan: 10.6 in (27 cm)
Harris’s Sparrows breed in the northern tundra of central Canada and migrate to south-central Great Plains for winter. They can be seen during migration across central US states and Canadian provinces.
You can find Harris’s Sparrows out in the open during their migration or in winter in fields or other open areas. They eat seeds, fruit, insects, and especially crowberries in spring when nesting, and there is less food around.
Harris’s Sparrow Call/Song:
Nests of Harris’s Sparrows are on the ground and made from twigs and moss and lined with soft grass. They lay up to five eggs which take around two weeks to hatch and a further nine days or so for the young to leave the nest.
Attract Harris’s Sparrows to your backyard in winter with black oil sunflower seeds, millet, and cracked corn.
Fun fact: Harris’s Sparrows are the only songbird that breeds in Canada and nowhere else.
How to Attract Sparrows to Your Backyard
Sparrows are easy to attract to your yard with these easy to follow tips.
- Provide their favourite seeds which include sunflower seeds nyjer, millet and cracked corn.
- Plant native plants and shrubs to attract insects
- Provide a water feature with clean running water
- Don’t put feeders near sheltered areas where cats may pounce.
Most Commonly Spotted Sparrows in Alberta:
Bird watchers submit checklists on ebird, and this shows how frequently all the sparrows in Alberta are spotted:
- House Sparrow 25.8%
- Dark-eyed Junco 11.9%
- Clay-colored Sparrow 10.6%
- Song Sparrow 10.0%
- Savannah Sparrow 9.7%
- White-throated Sparrow 9.4%
- Chipping Sparrow 9.1%
- White-crowned Sparrow 5.6%
- Lincoln’s Sparrow 5.5%
- Vesper Sparrow 3.1%
- American Tree Sparrow 2.5%
- LeConte’s Sparrow 1.4%
- Swamp Sparrow 1.0%
- Spotted Towhee 0.7%
- Fox Sparrow 0.4%
- Nelson’s Sparrow 0.4%
- Lark Sparrow 0.4%
- Harris’s Sparrow 0.3%
- Baird’s Sparrow 0.2%
- Brewer’s Sparrow 0.2%
- Lark Bunting 0.1%
- Grasshopper Sparrow 0.1%
- Golden-crowned Sparrow 0.1%