This guide will help you identify the types of geese spotted in Ontario and will help you identify them with photos and detailed ID guides and when you are most likely to spot them, plus some fun facts.
Twelve of the thirteen species of geese found in North America have been spotted in Ontario.
A group of geese is called a gaggle. But have you heard all the names given to geese, such as shien, wedge, and a plump?
Or that they have been used for centuries as guards to protect pets, people, and even countries with their territorial behavior and loud honking!
Geese are protected under the migratory bird treaty, and it is illegal to harm them, their eggs, or their nests in the United States without permission from the U.S. Fish and Wild Service (USFWS).
12 Types Of Geese In Ontario:
1. Canada Goose
Canada Geese are very common in Ontario and are spotted in the province all year. They are recorded in 30% of summer checklists and 22% of winter checklists submitted by bird watchers for the province.
The Canada Goose, also called the Canadian goose, is a large, long-necked goose recognized for its black head and easily identifiable white chin strap.
Canada Geese look very similar to Cackling Geese, and they have the same black head and white chin strap, but their long, graceful neck and large size separate them.
Their bodies are brown with a tan or pale chest and white rump. The color of the bodies among the subspecies may be shades of gray or brown. Their legs and webbed feet are black.
- Branta canadensis
- Length: 25 – 45 in (64 – 114 cm)
- Weight: 230.09 oz (6521 g)
- Wingspan: 70 – 75 in (178 – 190 cm)
As their name would suggest, Canada Geese breed in Canada and migrate for the winter to southern US states, but those in northern US states remain all year and do not migrate. They are also found in western Europe.
You can find Canada Geese practically anywhere. They are often seen near lakes and rivers, basically, anywhere there’s a body of water and an abundant food source. They are also used to humans, so they live comfortably in urban habitats like city parks, reservoirs, golf courses, public parks, and beaches.
In some places, their population has risen considerably and they’re considered pests.
Canada Geese mainly eat grasses when they’re on land and small aquatic insects and fish when they’re on the water. They also eat wheat, rice, and corn when they’re on agricultural fields. They’re accustomed to receiving food from humans or digging through trash cans.
Canada Goose Call:
Nests of Canada Geese are often in an elevated area near water. The female lays up to nine eggs in a nest made with plant material and down. She incubates the eggs for about a month while the male stays nearby, protecting them.
When they hatch, their parents lead them to a food source where they learn to feed themselves. Parents are incredibly territorial and violent when they sense danger or threats to their family.
Fun Fact: During the breeding season, adults lose their flight feathers because it coincides with their molting season. They only regain their feathers after twenty to forty days, just in time for them to fly with their young.
2. Snow Goose
Snow Geese are spotted in Ontario all year, but their numbers increase during migration and winter. They appear in 1% of checklists during migration.
The Snow Goose is aptly named because this goose is totally white except for its black wingtips, pink bill with a black grin patch, and pink legs and feet.
Interestingly, it has another variant, called the Blue Goose, which has a white head but a dark blue-gray body. Both variants of the Snow Geese may occasionally have a “stained” head due to their feeding.
The sexes of both variants are similar though they may vary in size. Males tend to be larger than females.
Juvenile white morphs have a dusky gray-brown coloring, and juvenile blue morphs are dark gray. However, they both still have the recognizable pink bill and black grin patch.
- Anser caerulescens
- Length: 25 – 31 in (64 – 79 cm)
- Weight: 81.13 oz (2299 g)
- Wingspan: 54.3 in (138 cm)
Snow Geese breed mainly in Canada and spend winter in the United States.
You can find Snow Geese and Blue Geese together in freshwater marshes and agricultural grain fields. In winter, they favor salt marshes and coastal bays, but they still visit plowed cornfields or wetlands.
Snow Geese are herbivores and voracious eaters. They regularly feed in water-logged soil or shallow water. Their favorite diet includes any type of plant vegetation, like grasses, sedges, willows, rushes, and horsetails. They will also feed on seeds, grains, and plants that they rip up by their roots.
Snow Goose Call:
Nests of Snow Geese are usually found in large colonies on tundra. The female builds a nest, usually a shallow depression on the ground, which may be reused repeatedly because females return to the place where they hatched to breed.
After she lays the first three to five eggs, she lines the nest with grasses and down. Incubation takes around twenty-four days, and when they hatch, the goslings can fend for themselves.
Fun Fact: Snow Geese choose the same color morph as themselves when breeding and will mate for life.
3. Cackling Goose
Cackling Geese spend the winter in Ontario, but they are most common during migration from March to April and October to November. They occur in 1% of checklists at these times.
Cackling Geese are native to North America and bear a striking resemblance to Canada Geese. They were originally part of the Canada Goose family but were made into a full species in 2004.
Cackling Geese have black heads and necks with a white “chinstrap” patch. Their bills are short, black, and triangular. They are light brown or tan with white barring all over.
However, Cackling Geese are smaller in size than Canada Geese and have stubbier bills, steeper foreheads, and shorter necks.
There are four subspecies that all have the distinctive black heads and necks, including the white chinstrap but have slight variations in size or coloring.
- Branta hutchinsii
- Length: 22 – 30 in (56 – 76 cm)
- Weight: 105.9 oz (3001 g)
- Wingspan: 43 – 47 in (109 – 119 cm)
Cackling Geese breed in Canada and Alaska and migrate to the United States for winter.
You can find Cackling Geese year-round in wetlands and meadows. They often join flocks and mix with other geese in lakes, marshes, and fields in winter, but they prefer the tundra during summer.
Cackling Geese forage in open environments to graze on grasses and feed on sedges and berries. They will also eat crops like wheat, barley, beans, rice, and corn in agricultural fields. In the water, they feed on aquatic plants.
Cackling Goose Call:
Nests of Cackling Geese may be found singly or in colonies. They’re usually in a shallow depression but in a slightly elevated location near the water. The females use plant material and down to construct the nests. In it, she will lay up to eight eggs that she incubates for about a month.
Fun Fact: Cackling Geese have a distinctive “cackling” voice or high-pitched call, distinguishing them from Canada Geese.
Brant Geese are spotted in Ontario, mainly in the east of the province, during migration, but there have been sightings all year.
The Brant Goose is a small goose with a black head, throat, and chest, a white collar or marking on the throat, and a white rump. However, there are various sub-species, mainly with lighter or darker coloring.
- Branta bernicla
- Length: 22 – 26 in (56 – 66 cm)
- Weight: 63.84 oz (1809 g)
- Wingspan: 43 – 48 in (109 – 122 cm)
Brant Geese breed in Canada and Alaska before migrating to coastal areas of the United States and Mexico. They also live in Europe.
You can find Brant Geese in tundra, marshlands, islands, and coastal areas during the breeding season. In winter, they inhabit salt marshes, lagoons, mudflats, and tidal estuaries.
Brant geese feed mostly on plant material both on land and water. They favor eelgrass, but any available grass is welcome. They also eat sedges, pondweed, and aquatic insects.
Brant Goose Call:
Nests of Brant Geese are usually located on small islands in tundra ponds or in elevated locations. They are shallow bowls of grass lined with down.
The female lays up to seven eggs that incubate for three to four weeks. When the eggs hatch, the parents lead the young to the feeding area so they can feed themselves.
Fun Fact: Brant Geese can live up to 28 years.
5. Greater White-fronted Goose
Greater White-fronted Geese spend winter in Ontario from September to May, mainly in the south of the province.
The Greater White-fronted Goose is simply known as White-fronted Goose in Europe and Greater Whitefront in North America.
Male and female Greater White-fronted Geese appear similar and are both relatively big geese.
Their barred feathers are mostly gray all-over, which is why they are sometimes mistaken for the Graylag Goose. What sets them apart is the “white front”, the white feathers surrounding the base of its orange bill. They also have black flecks on their underparts.
- Anser albifrons
- Length: 26 – 34 in (66 -86 cm)
- Weight: 126.98 oz (3599 g)
- Wingspan: 53 – 60 in (135 – 152 cm)
In North America, Greater White-fronted Geese predominantly breed in Canada and migrate to the United States and Mexico for winter. However, they are also found in Europe and east Asia.
Greater White-fronted Geese breed in the west of northern Canada and spend winter along the West Coast of the United States, The Gulf Coast, and Mexico.
You can find Greater White-fronted Geese in marshy tundra, wetlands, rivers, and ponds during the breeding season. In winter, they stay in agricultural fields, marshes, bays, and lakes.
Greater White-fronted Geese forage on both land and water. They feed on crops like seeds and grains from agricultural fields. They also eat grasses and berries. When near water, they forage for aquatic insects and mollusks.
White-fronted Goose Call:
Nests of Greater White-fronted Geese are found in shallow depressions in the tundra. They are lined with grass and down and usually hold three to six eggs. The female incubates them for two to three weeks.
Fun Fact: Greater White-fronted Geese form long-term family bonds. They migrate together, even with their offspring, and the young stay with their parents until the next breeding season.
6. Ross’s Goose
Ross’s Geese are usually spotted during winter in southern Ontario.
Ross’s Geese are pretty similar to Snow Geese, whom they often flock with. They are white all over except for their short, gray-based red-orange bills, short and stubby, pink-red legs and feet, and black wingtips. Both sexes are similar, but the female is slightly smaller.
There is a dark phase variant of Ross’s Goose, but it’s extremely rare. It has a white head, a brownish bill with a red patch, dark gray throats, underparts, and back.
- Anser rossii
- Length: 21 – 26 in (53 – 66 cm)
- Weight: 59.2 oz (1678 g)
- Wingspan: 47 – 54 in (119 – 137 cm)
Ross’s Geese breed in northern Canada and spend the winter in the United States.
You can find Ross’s Geese in salt and freshwater marshes during winter. During the breeding season, they will nest on the arctic tundra.
Ross’s Geese are grazers, and they often feed on grass, sedges, and small grains, which they forage from wetlands, meadows, and fields.
Ross’s Goose Call:
Nests of Ross’s Geese are located within colonies on lake islands and arctic tundra. Females build nests on the ground out of grasses, moss, leaves, and twigs that line with down. Each breeding female lays four to five eggs and incubates them for about three weeks.
Fun Fact: Ross’s Geese are the smallest geese in North America.
7. Barnacle Goose
Barnacle Geese are considered rare or accidental species in Ontario, but they have been spotted here during winter in the southeast of the province.
Barnacle Geese are medium-sized yet delicate-looking geese. Their faces are white, bills are short and black, their head, throat, and upper chest are black, bellies are white, and wings and back are silver-gray with black and white bars.
When in flight, v-shaped rumps and silver-gray linings are visible.
- Branta leucopsis
- Length: 23 – 28 in (58 – 71 cm)
- Weight: 62.4 oz (1768 g)
- Wingspan: 52 – 56 in (132 – 142 cm)
Barnacle Geese breed and winter mainly in the North Atlantic but also in eastern Canada and northeastern US states.
You can find Barnacle Geese in salt marshes, grassy fields, pastureland, and agricultural fields. During the breeding season, they usually occupy islets, islands, and cliff ledges that are close to shore.
Barnacle Geese feed mainly on grass, whether on tundra, near water or on farmlands. They also feed on aquatic vegetation and insects when near water and crops and grains in fields.
Barnacle Goose Call:
Nests of Barnacle Geese are often built on cliff ledges to protect the eggs from predators. The female uses mud and dead foliage to create the nest and lines it with soft down feathers.
The female lays five eggs and incubates them for twenty-five days. When the eggs hatch, the young are led to marshes with plenty of vegetation so that they can feed themselves. They fledge after about forty-five days.
Fun Fact: Barnacle Goose got their name from a Medieval Myth that tells that they supposedly came from Barnacles.
8. Pink-footed Goose
Pink-footed Geese are extremely rare in Ontario and are considered accidental species in the province. However, there have been recent sightings around Ottawa.
The Pink-footed Goose, or “pinkfoot” for short, is often mistaken for its close relatives, the Taiga and Tundra Bean Geese, but it has pink feet and legs. While they may appear similar because
They have brown heads, short black bills with a pink band in the middle, blue-gray backs and wings, light-brown throats, breasts, bellies with a barring pattern, white rumps, and pink legs and feet.
Males and females look similar, but juveniles are dark brown with a more distinct scaled pattern on their sides, flanks, and backs.
- Anser brachyrhynchus
- Length: 26 in (66 cm)
- Weight: 97.6 0z (2766 g)
- Wingspan: 53 – 67 in (135 – 170 cm)
Pink-footed Geese spend winter in eastern Canada and northeastern US states. However, they are mainly found in Greenland and Europe.
You can find Pink-footed Geese in open tundra, large estuaries, agricultural farmlands, and rocky outcrops and crags.
Pink-footed Geese feed on a wide variety of tundra plants in the summer, whether on land or water, while they mainly feed on grains, sugar beets, and potatoes from agricultural fields in winter.
Pink-footed Goose Call:
Nests of Pink-footed Geese are often located on cliffs close to glaciers and on islets in lakes. They need a safe place for nesting to protect them from predatory attacks. Nests are simple, shallow scrapes on the ground lined with moss and down.
The female lays three to five eggs which she incubates for just under four weeks. When the eggs hatch, the young goslings walk with their parents to the nearest lake for food.
Fun Fact: While large populations of Pink-footed Geese may cause damage to crops as they feed, they also help farmers since they eat the leaves and roots of sugar beets and potatoes after harvesting. This reduces the transmission of crop diseases.
9. Tundra Bean-Goose
Tundra Bean-Geese are considered rare or accidental species in Ontario, and they were spotted around Ottawa in 2021.
The Tundra Bean-Goose is closely related to the Taiga Bean-Goose and is still considered a single species by some authorities. The American Ornithological Society and International Ornithologists’ Union already recognize them as separate species.
Tundra Bean-Geese have a brown head and a black bill with an orange band near the middle. Their throat and flanks have light brown barring, and their backs and wings have a dark brown barring pattern. Their rumps are white. Their legs and feet are orange.
While males and females look alike, juveniles have a yellow bill, dull orange legs, and indistinct barring on the flanks.
Taiga Bean Goose has a longer beak with a broad orange marking, whereas the Tundra Bean Goose has a shorter beak with a smaller orange band on the bill.
- Anser serrirostris
- Length: 28 – 33 in (71 – 84 cm)
- Weight:120 oz (3401 g)
- Wingspan: 53 – 64 in (135 – 163 cm)
Taiga Bean Geese are usually found in Europe, but they occasionally stray into North America.
You can find Tundra Bean-Goose in tundra, particularly during the breeding season. In winter, expect to see it in marshes, wet grasslands, lakes, and large rivers. They are also fond of farmlands where they freely associate with other geese.
The diet of Tundra Bean-Geese is grass, seeds, and small creatures in the wetlands, but in agricultural fields, they eat cereal grains, potatoes, and other crops.
Tundra Bean-Goose Call:
Nests of Tundra Bean-Geese are commonly found under tundra vegetation. Nests are made of lichen and down placed in a shallow scrape on a dry hummock of moss. The female lays four to six eggs and incubates them for twenty-six days.
Fun Fact: Tundra Bean-Goose are easily disturbed, so they prefer fields that are empty of grazing livestock.
10. Graylag Goose
Graylag Geese are extremely rare in Ontario, but there have been sightings around Confederation Park in 2022.
The Graylag Goose (Greylag Goose) is considered the ancestor of most breeds of domestic goose. They are mostly dark gray all over, with a pinkish-orange bill which sometimes has a white tip at the end, and dull pink legs.
Males and females look alike, but the females are slightly smaller than the males.
- Anser anser
- Length: 34 in (86.36 cm)
- Weight: 76 oz (2154 g)
- Wingspan: 66 in (167.6 cm)
Graylag Geese in North America are often domesticated geese and may be too large to fly. Wild ones are rare to find here as they are originally from Europe.
You may find Graylag Geese in marshes, lakes, and reservoirs during their breeding season. They prefer habitats with thick ground cover like reeds, rushes, and bushes. In winter, they are seen on saltwater marshes, estuaries, bogs, and even on agricultural land.
Graylag Geese feed both on land and water. On land, they graze in pastures feeding on the grass with sheep or cows. They also feed on cereals, like oats, wheat, and barley, that they find in agricultural fields and farmlands.
Near or on water, Graylag Geese feed on aquatic plants and insects, such as small fish, amphibians, crustaceans, mollusks, and insects.
Graylag Geese Call:
Nests of the Graylag Goose are usually found on the ground among tall reeds or shrubs. The female usually lays four to six eggs, and incubation only starts when the last egg is laid. She will incubate the eggs for about for weeks while the male defends the territory.
Fun Fact: The feathers of Graylag Goose were used as quill pens and served to fletch arrows.
11. Egyptian Goose
Egyptian Geese are extremely rare in Ontario, and they were spotted around Bowmanville in 2021.
The Egyptian Goose is an ornamental bird most often seen in zoos and aviaries but has grown to invasive population numbers in some countries.
Egyptian Geese have very distinct features, which make them easily identifiable. Their golden-yellow or orange eyes have a brown patch around them. Their heads are whitish-gray with some reddish tints at the nape, and their bills are pink on top and black on the bottom.
They have a reddish-brown collar. Their breasts are tan, their bellies are white with gray linings, and their backs and wings are a combination of white, green, brown, and black. They have pink legs and feet.
Juveniles have a darker reddish-brown head and nape. They are generally tan or light brown on their bellies. Their backs and wings are dark brown.
- Alopochen aegyptiaca
- Length: 24 – 29 in (61 – 74 cm)
- Weight: 70 – 77.5 oz (1984 – 2196 g)
- Wingspan: 52 – 60 in (132 – 152 cm)
Although native to Africa, escaped Egyptian Geese have populations in Europe and North America.
You can find Egyptian Goose in open, wetlands, and non-forested areas near water. They are also often kept in zoos and aviaries.
Egyptian Geese are fond of seeds, leaves, grasses, and plant stems. They will also eat algae and aquatic plants, insects, and small animals.
Egyptian Goose Call:
Nests of Egyptian Geese are found on the ground and in hollows of trees, caves, and other animals’ nests. The nests are made mostly of grasses, leaves, and down and hold up to twenty-two eggs that take about a month to hatch.
Parents will take care of their young, but the young have to learn how to feed themselves.
Fun Fact: The Egyptian Goose was once considered a sacred bird in Ancient Egypt and are featured in a lot of their artwork.
12. Emperor Goose
Emperor Geese are accidental species in Ontario and have not been spotted in a number of years.
Emperor Geese are also known as Beach Geese because they prefer coastal habitats. They are also called Painted Geese because of their beautiful feathers.
Male and Female Emperor Geese look alike. They both have pure white heads and napes (the back of the neck), pink bills, black chins and throats, blue-gray bodies with scalloped patterning, yellow-orange legs, and white tails.
The heads of Emperor Geese turn reddish-brown or orange during the summer when they feed in tidal pools with iron oxide.
Juveniles have duller coloring. They have dark heads and necks. Their bills are grayish-black, and their legs are darker in color.
- Anser canagicus
- Length: 26 – 28 in (66 – 71 cm)
- Weight: 110.37 oz (3128 g)
- Wingspan: 48 – 56 in (122 – 142 cm)
Emperor Geese breed and spend winter in the north, around the Bering Sea in the arctic and sub-arctic.
You can find the Emperor Goose in freshwater tidal pools, inland lakes, and coastal lagoons during the summer. In winter, they live in mudflats, rocky shores, and coastal tundra.
The diet of Emperor Geese varies depending on their location and season. During the breeding and nesting season, they forage totally on land and feed on grasses, sedges, berries, roots, and bulbs.
During winter, they forage by “puddling” where they stamp their feet on mudflats to dislodge clams. When they’re on or near water, they eat crustaceans, bivalve mollusks, barnacles, eelgrass, and sea lettuce.
Emperor Goose Call:
Nests of Emperor Geese are usually shallow depressions in the ground among the marshes. The female lines the nest with leaves and her own feathers and lays around four to six eggs in the nests.
But she may still lay up to eight more eggs in other Emperor Geese’s nests…gutsy!
Incubation takes twenty-four days by the female. When the goslings hatch, they can walk, swim and feed themselves after a few hours.
Fun Fact: The Emperor Goose gets its name from the adult’s white crown and nape, which resemble the ermine trim on a royal cloak.